- IV: (+)ssRNA viruses (+ strand or sense) RNA (e.g. Picornaviruses, Togaviruses)
- V: (−)ssRNA viruses (− strand or antisense) RNA (e.g. Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses)
- VI: ssRNA-RT viruses (+ strand or sense) RNA with DNA intermediate in life-cycle (e.g. Retroviruses)
"Sense" in RNA means "ready to make proteins, as messenger RNA does".
"Antisense" in RNA means "complementary to messenger RNA". In complete complementarity each nucleotide is across from its opposite number, so antisense RNA can produce sense RNA.
Mutation rates[change | change source]
RNA viruses have very high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses. This is because viral RNA polymerases lack the proof-reading ability of DNA polymerases. This explains why it is difficult to make effective vaccines to prevent diseases caused by RNA viruses.
Some genes of RNA virus are important to the viral replication cycles and mutations are not tolerated. For example, the bit of the hepatitis C virus genome which encodes the core protein is highly conserved, because it is essential to start translation.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- Klein, Donald W.; Prescott, Lansing M.; Harley, John (1993). Microbiology. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. ISBN 0-697-01372-3.
- Martinez MA, etal (2012). "Quasispecies dynamics of RNA viruses". In Witzany, G.. Viruses: essential agents of life. Springer. pp. 21–42. ISBN 978-94-007-4898-9.
- Steinhauer DA, Holland JJ (1987). "Rapid evolution of RNA viruses". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41: 409–33. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.41.100187.002205. PMID 3318675.
- Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH (1994). "Sequence analysis of the core gene of 14 hepatitis C virus genotypes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (17): 8239–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.17.8239. PMC 44581. PMID 8058787.
- Tuplin A, Evans DJ, Simmonds P (2004). "Detailed mapping of RNA secondary structures in core and NS5B-encoding region sequences of hepatitis C virus by RNase cleavage and novel bioinformatic prediction methods". J. Gen. Virol. 85 (Pt 10): 3037–47. doi:10.1099/vir.0.80141-0. PMID 15448367.