Progressive Judaism, sometimes called Reform Judaism is a movement within Judaism. This movement has its roots in a movement in 19th centuryGermany. There are a number of movements which fall under these denominations. In very basic terms:
Jewish laws can be split into ethical and ritual laws. The ethical laws do not change, the ritual laws can be adapted to customs.
To some extent, Jews should integrate into the society they live in. This means that some of the ritual laws must be adapted. Such adaptations also allow modern lifestyles.
The texts that are the basis of Judaism should not be read literally. They can be analyzed and criticized like any other text.
Women are seen as equals to men and are allowed to sit with the men when attending synagogue while in Orthodox Judaism, women are expected to sit in a different area. Women are also allowed to not wear head coverings when attending synagogue.