Motto: 홍익인간; 弘益人間
Benefit broadly the human world (unofficial)
Anthem: Aegukga (애국가; 愛國歌)
("The Patriotic Song")
|Ethnic groups||Korean (99.99%)|
|Demonym(s)||South Korean, Korean|
|100,210 km2 (38,690 sq mi) (109th)|
• Water (%)
• 2010 estimate
|491/km2 (1,271.7/sq mi) (21st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$2.029 trillion (12th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$1.53 trillion (11th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2018)|| 0.901|
very high · 15th
|Currency||South Korean won (₩) (KRW)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Korea Standard Time)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC+9 (not observed)|
|Date format||yyyy년 mm월 dd일 |
|Internet TLD||.kr, .한국|
South Korea is a country in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, in the north east region of Asia. The capital city is Seoul. The official name of South Korea is the Republic of Korea in English, 대한민국 (Daehan Minguk) in Korean writing (Hangeul), and 大韓民國 in Chinese characters (Hanja). About half of the country's people live in its capital city, Seoul, or near the city in the metropolitan area. Korea's Seoul metropolitan area is one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. In fact, some sources say it is the second most populous after Tokyo, Japan.
History[change | change source]
South Korea's history began with Dangunwanggeom's Gojoseon. Gojoseon was conquered by Han China. After Gojoseon collapsed, there were a lot of countries such as Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongyae and Samhan. But Baekje, Goguryeo and Silla were the strongest. So their period began, and it is called the Three Kingdoms Period. Goguryeo and Baekje were conquered by Silla and Dang China's allied forces, and Silla unified the three kingdoms. There was another country, Balhae. Balhae was founded by Dae Jo-Young. Later Silla and Balhae's period is called South and North Countries Period. A rebellion in Later Silla caused the birth of a new nation: Goryeo, which was founded by Wanggeon. Mongolia's invaded Goryeo. Near the end of the Goryeo period, there was a great general Lee Seong-Gye. The king of Goryeo directed him to occupy Yodong, but he opposed. However, Lee Seong-Gye went to Yodong to occupy it, but he returned to Goryeo and he revolted. His revolt succeeded, and he founded the country Joseon. Joseon's first king, Taejo, moved the capital to Hanyang (Seoul). Joseon's fourth king, Sejong, made the Korean alphabet, Hangeul. Joseon's twenty-second king, Jeongjo, built Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon. Joseon's twenty-sixth king, Gojong, changed the country's name to Daehanjeguk. When Daehanjaeguk's power weakened, Japan occupied it for 35 years until Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945. In 1950, there was a big war, the Korean War. As a result, Korea was split into two countries, North and South.
Geography[change | change source]
South Korea is in East Asia, bordering North Korea, and is surrounded by water on three sides, as it makes up the southern part of the Korean peninsula. It is separated from Japan by the East Sea. South Korea is mainly mountainous, and there are many islands off the south coast. The capital city, Seoul, is quite close to the North Korean border. The largest island is Jeju Island and the highest mountain is Hallasan, on Jeju. The country is slightly smaller than Iceland and Virginia.
Politics and government[change | change source]
South Korea is a democracy, meaning that people can vote for their government. The President of South Korea is elected to a five-year term, and cannot stand in a Presidential Election for a second time. The current president is Moon Jae-in since 10 May 2017. The previous president, Park Geun-hye, was impeached for corruption.
Science and technology[change | change source]
South Korea is a very rich country and is known for a lot of technology. This includes the car-makers Hyundai and Kia. The well-known global brand Samsung, which makes mobile phones, semi-conductors and electric devices, is also South Korean.
Culture[change | change source]
South Korea has been affected by both continental culture and marine culture because it is located on a peninsula. Ancient South Korean culture has developed with the culture of Siberia, the northern part of Central Asia, the southern part of Southeast Asia and neighboring countries like China.
Language[change | change source]
South Korea's customary and official language is Korean. Many linguists says that it is linked with Altaic languages. Hangul, the alphabet which is used to write Korean, was published by King Sejong the Great of Joseon in 1446. It is the only alphabet in the word whose creator, invention day and invention principle is known.
Food[change | change source]
A customary South Korean regular meal is made up of rice, Korean soup, kimchi and other various dishes. Generally, Korean dishes are seasoned with sesame oil, soy bean paste, soy sauce, salt, ginger and chilli pepper paste. The most famous traditional food of Korea, kimchi, is eaten with nearly every meal. There are lots of popular South Korean typical foods such as bibimbap, tteokbokki, and bulgogi.
Religion[change | change source]
Music[change | change source]
The most representative traditional music of Korea is Arirang and every region has its own folk song. Many South Korean singers are well known in world as K-pop is steadily developing. There are lots of K-pop singers like GOT7, Boa, TVXQ, Super Junior, Girls' Generation, Blackpink, Shinee, Beast (Or known as Highlight), Exo, BTS, etc.
Cities and provinces[change | change source]
South Korea has 1 special city (Teukbyeolsi; 특별시; 特別市), 1 special self-governing city (Teukbyeol-Jachisi; 특별자치시; 特別自治市) 6 metropolitan cities (Gwangyeoksi; 광역시; 廣域市), and 9 provinces (do; 도; 道). The names below are given in English, Revised Romanization, Hangeul, and Hanja.
Special city[change | change source]
- Seoul Special City (Seoul-teukbyeolsi; 서울특별시; 서울特別市)
- Note: 서울 (Seoul) itself has no corresponding Hanja.
Special self-governing city[change | change source]
- Sejong special self-governing city (Sejong-teukbyeol-jachasi 세종특별자치시; 世宗特別自治市)
Metropolitan cities[change | change source]
- Busan Metropolitan City (Busan-gwangyeoksi; 부산광역시; 釜山廣域市)
- Daegu Metropolitan City (Daegu-gwangyeoksi; 대구광역시; 大邱廣域市)
- Daejeon Metropolitan City (Daejeon-gwangyeoksi; 대전광역시; 大田廣域市)
- Gwangju Metropolitan City (Gwangju-gwangyeoksi; 광주광역시; 光州廣域市)
- Incheon Metropolitan City (Incheon-gwangyeoksi; 인천광역시; 仁川廣域市)
- Ulsan Metropolitan City (Ulsan-gwangyeoksi; 울산광역시; 蔚山廣域市)
Provinces[change | change source]
- Gyeonggi Province (Gyeonggi-do; 경기도; 京畿道)
- Gangwon Province (Gangwon-do; 강원도; 江原道)
- North Chungcheong Province (Chungcheongbuk-do; 충청 북도; 忠清北道)
- South Chungcheong Province (Chungcheongnam-do; 충청 남도; 忠清南道)
- North Jeolla Province (Jeollabuk-do; 전라 북도; 全羅北道)
- South Jeolla Province (Jeollanam-do; 전라 남도; 全羅南道)
- North Gyeongsang Province (Gyeongsangbuk-do; 경상 북도; 慶尚北道)
- South Gyeongsang Province(Gyeongsangnam-do; 경상 남도; 慶尚南道)
- Jeju Province (Jeju-do; 제주도; 濟州道)
Notes and references[change | change source]
- Korea, South: People and Society
- "총인구, 인구성장률 : 지표상세화면". Index.go.kr. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
- "South Korea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- Gini index CIA World Fact Book
- "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "3_4whicharethe.pdf (application/pdf 객체)" (PDF). uic.edu. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- "Korean religious statistics". NationMaster.com. Retrieved 2008-03-19. External link in
Further reading[change | change source]
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- Breen, Michael (2004). The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies, St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312326092.
- Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun, New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5.
- Hart, Dennis (2003). From Tradition to Consumption: Constructing a Capitalist Culture in South Korea. ISBN 89-88095-44-8.
- Hawley, Samuel (2005). The Imjin War. Japan's Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China, The Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 89-954424-2-5.
- KOIS (2003). Handbook of Korea, 11 edition, Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-212-8.
- Nahm, Andrew C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people, 2 edition, Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2.
- Yang, Sung Chul (1999). The North and South Korean political systems: A comparative analysis, Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-105-9.
- Yonhap News Agency (2004). Korea Annual 2004. ISBN 89-7433-070-9.