Reverse DNS lookup
Typically, the Domain Name System is used to determine what IP address is associated with a given domain name. So, to "reverse-resolve" a known IP address to determine the hostname is simply the process of searching what host and domain name belongs to that IP address.
A reverse lookup is often referred to as reverse resolving, or more specifically reverse DNS lookup, and is accomplished using a "reverse IN-ADDR entry" in the form of a PTR record.
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