|Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland|
3 September 1658 – 25 May 1659
|Preceded by||Oliver Cromwell|
|Succeeded by||Council of State|
|Born||4 October 1626|
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
|Died||12 July 1712 (aged 85)|
Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, England
(m. 1649; died 1675)
|Relations||Oliver Cromwell (father)|
Elizabeth Bourchier (mother)
|Royal styles of|
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
|Reference style||His Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Highness|
Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. Richard Cromwell's enemies called him Tumbledown Dick and Queen Dick.
Richard Cromwell was not suited to ruling the country. He followed his father as ruler only because he was Oliver's oldest living son, and people expected one of Oliver's sons to follow him. After a short time, he gave up power and he knew that many of the people wanted King Charles II to come back from Holland and rule the country. When it was agreed that Charles would return, Richard thought it would be best for him to leave Britain, and he went to live in France for a while. He changed his name to "John Clarke" and travelled around Europe, not returning home for twenty years. When he came back, he lived quietly outside London for the rest of his life.
Stories about Richard[change | change source]
It is possible that the nursery rhyme "Hickory Dickory Dock" is actually about Richard Cromwell. One of Richard's nicknamess was Hickory Dick. The mouse in the rhyme runs down when the clock strikes one and Cromwell only reigned for one year.
References[change | change source]
- Jack, Albert (2008). Pop Goes the Weasel: The Secret Meanings of Nursery Rhymes. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780141909301.
- Gaunt, Peter (2004). "Richard Cromwell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Hutton, Ronald (1985). The Restoration: A Political and Religious History of England and Wales, 1658-1667. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822698-5.
Other websites[change | change source]
- BBC Bio of Richard Cromwell
- BBC Bio of Oliver Cromwell
- Britannia.com "Monarchs" Page on Richard Cromwell
| Lord Protectorate of England, Scotland and Ireland
September 3, 1658-May 25, 1659
King Charles II
As King of England, Scotland, Ireland and France.
| Chancellor of the University of Oxford
Duke of Somerset