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Ruanruan (Chinese: 蠕蠕; also called Rouran) is an extinct language of Mongolia and northern China. It was spoken in the Rouran Khaganate from the 4th to the 6th centuries CE. It is possibly Altaic or Sino–Tibetan.

Some say Ruan-ruan may be a Yeniseian language, a possible Sino-Tibetan language.[1][2][3][4]

In 2018, Brāhmī Bugut and Khüis Tolgoi inscriptions suggest that the Ruan-ruan language was a Mongolic language, close to Middle Mongolian.[5][6]

References[change | change source]

  1. Vovin, Alexander 2004. ‘Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Old Turkic 12-Year Animal Cycle.’ Central Asiatic Journal 48/1: 118–32.
  2. Vovin, Alexander. 2010. Once Again on the Ruan-ruan Language. Ötüken’den İstanbul’a Türkçenin 1290 Yılı (720–2010) Sempozyumu From Ötüken to Istanbul, 1290 Years of Turkish (720–2010). 3–5 Aralık 2010, İstanbul / 3–5 December 2010, İstanbul: 1–10.
  3. Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87–104.
  4. Vajda, Edward J. (2013). Yeniseian Peoples and Languages: A History of Yeniseian Studies with an Annotated Bibliography and a Source Guide. Oxford/New York: Routledge.
  5. Vovin, Alexander (January 2019). "A Sketch of the Earliest Mongolic Language: the Brāhmī Bugut and Khüis Tolgoi Inscriptions". International Journal of Eurasian Linguistics. 1 (1): 162–197. doi:10.1163/25898833-12340008. ISSN 2589-8825. S2CID 198833565.
  6. Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2019). Hammer and Anvil: Nomad Rulers at the Forge of the Modern World. p. 49.