Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

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Russian Soviet Federative
Socialist Republic
Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика
Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika
Motto: Workers of the world, unite!
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'! (tr.)
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1956 and 1991
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1956 and 1991
Largest cityMoscow
Official languagesRussianb
Recognised languagesSee Languages of Russia
Head of state 
• 1917 (first)
Lev Kamenevc
• 1990–1991 (last)
Boris Yeltsind
Head of government 
• 1917–1924 (first)
Vladimir Lenine
• 1990–1991
Ivan Silayevf
• 1991 (last)
Boris Yeltsing
Historical era
7 November 1917
• Soviet republic proclaimed
25 January 1918
30 December 1922
19 February 1954
12 June 1990
12 December 1991
• Russian SFSR renamed into the Russian Federation
25 December 1991
26 December 1991
25 December 1993
1956[source?]17,125,200 km2 (6,612,100 sq mi)
• 1989[source?]
CurrencySoviet ruble (Rbl)h (SUR)
Time zone(UTC +2 to +12)
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Republic
Russian State
Far Eastern Republic
Priamurye Government
Finland (portion)
Germany (portion)
Japan (portion)
Karelo-Finnish SSR
Ukrainian People's Republic (portion)
Estonia (portion)
Belarusian People's Republic (portion)
Latvia (portion)
Soviet Union
Uzbek SSR (portion)
Turkmen SSR
Byelorussian SSR (portion)
Kazakh SSR
Karelo-Finnish SSR
China (portion)
Russian Federation
  1. Remained the national anthem of Russia until 2000.
  2. Official language in the courts from 1937.[6]
  3. As Chairman of the VTsIK (All-Russian Central Executive Committee).
  4. As chairman the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR from 29 May 1990 to 10 July 1991, then as President.
  5. As Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR
  6. As Chairmen of the Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian SFSR
  7. Served as acting head of government while President of Russia
  8. Between 1917 and 1919 the Imperial ruble lost all of its value due to overprinting. It would be replaced that same year by the new Soviet ruble.[7]
Seven Hero City awards
The Russian Democratic Federative Republic existed briefly on 19 January 1918, but actual sovereignty was still in the hands of the Soviets even after the Russian Constituent Assembly opened its first and last session in 1918.[8]

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, romanized: Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə sɐˈvʲetskəjə fʲɪdʲɪrɐˈtʲivnəjə sətsɨəlʲɪˈsʲtʲitɕɪskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə] (audio speaker iconlisten)), also known as the Russian Soviet Republic[9] and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic,[10] as well as being unofficially referred to as Soviet Russia,[11] the Russian Federation,[12] or simply Russia, was an independent socialist state from 1917 to 1922. Afterwards it was the largest and most populous socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991. When the Soviet Union collapsed, the Russian SFSR became the Russian Federation.[13]

References[change | change source]

  1. Historical names:
    • 1918: Russian Soviet Republic (Российская Советская Республика; Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Respublika)
    • 1918–1936: Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Российская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика; Rossiyskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Federativnaya Sovetskaya Respublika)
    • 1936–1991: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика; Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika)
  2. Arthur Ransome (16 March 1918). "Lenine's Migration A Queer Scene". Archived 16 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times.
  3. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks, the Left SRs, and the Menshevik-Internationalists formed a Socialist coalition government that lasted until March 1918 (Historical Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. J. Davis. p. 58); the Mensheviks were allowed to legally hold a congress in 1920 and continued to be elected to the Congress of Soviets until being outlawed in 1921 (Lenin's Legacy. R. Wesson, 1978).
  4. Historical Dictionary of Socialism. James C. Docherty, Peter Lamb. Page 85. "The Soviet Union was a one-party Marxist-Leninist state."
  5. "Law of the USSR of 14 March 1990 N 1360-I 'On the establishment of the office of the President of the USSR and the making of changes and additions to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the USSR'". Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
  6. article 114 of the 1937 Constitution, article 171 of the 1978 Constitution
  7. R. W. Davies; Mark Harrison; S. G. Wheatcroft (9 December 1993). The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-521-45770-5.
  8. Riasanovsky, Nicholas (2000). A History of Russia (sixth ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 458. ISBN 0-19-512179-1.
  9. Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  10. Besier, Gerhard; Stokłosa, Katarzyna (2014). European Dictatorships: A Comparative History of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 9781443855211.
  11. Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people (original VTsIK variant Archived 7 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, III Congress revision), article I.
  12. Colloquially referred to as such for short in intra-Soviet politics (along with the adjacent "Transcaucasian Federation" in the south until 1936). See for example, the log of the meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 19 February 1954 Archived 12 September 2012 at The Russian SFSR officially renamed into the Russian Federation on Christmas Day, 25 December 1991.
  13. The Free Dictionary Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 22 June 2011.