Sachem

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Statue of Daniel Nimham, a sachem of the Wappinger.

Sachem and sagamores are terms for North American Indian chiefs. It is particularly used in Algonquian-speaking tribes of the Northeastern Woodlands.[1] The sachem was the highest level of chiefs. The sagamore was a lower-ranking chief.[2] Examples of sachems include Massasoit, Metacom, Uncas and Daniel Nimham. Little Turtle is an example of a sagamore.

Cognate words[change | change source]

Family Language Word Notes
Eastern Algonquian Proto-Eastern Algonquian *sākimāw theoretical reconstruction
Narragansett sâchim anglicized as sachem[3]
Lenape sakima derived from earlier form sakimaw[4]
Eastern Abnaki sakəma anglicized as sagamore[3]
Mi'kmaq saqamaw Ninigret
Malecite-Passamaquoddy sakom [5]
Western Abnaki sôgmô [6]
Wangunk sequin [7]
Central Algonquian Proto-Central Algonquian *hākimāw theoretical reconstruction
Anishinaabe ogimaa [8]
Algonquin ogimà [9]
Ottawa gimaa [10]
Potawatomi wgema anglicised as Ogema
Eastern Swampy Cree okimâw [11]
Northern East Cree uchimaa [12]
Southern East Cree uchimaa [13]
Naskapi iiyuuchimaaw [14]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Definition of SACHEM". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2022-08-05.
  2. "Definition of SAGAMORE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2022-08-05.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Goddard, Ives (1978). "Eastern Algonquian languages", in "Northeast", ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 75
  4. "sakima". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  5. Francis, David A., Sr. et al. Maliseet - Passamaquoddy Dictionary. Mi'kmaq - Maliseet Institute
  6. Laurent, Joseph (1884). New familiar Abenakis and English dialogues the first ever published on the grammatical system.
  7. Forest, John William De (1853). History of the Indians of Connecticut from the Earliest Known Period to 1850. Archon Books. pp. 54.
  8. Nichols, John, and Earl Nyholm. (1995). A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
  9. Mcgregor, Ernest. (1994). Algonquin Lexicon. Maniwaki, QC: Kitigan Zibi Education Council.
  10. Rhodes, Richard A. (1985). Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  11. MacKenzie, Marguerite (editor). (c2007). Wasaho Ininîwimowin Dictionary (Fort Severn Cree). Kwayaciiwin Education Resource Centre.
  12. Bobbish-Salt, Luci et al. (2004–06). Northern EastCree Dictionary. Cree School Board.
  13. Neeposh, Ella et al. (2004–07). Southern EastCree Dictionary. Cree School Board.
  14. MacKenzie, Marguerite and Bill Jancewicz. (1994). Naskapi lexicon Archived 2008-05-27 at the Wayback Machine. Kawawachikamach, Quebec: Naskapi Development Corp.