Santiago de los Caballeros

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Santiago
Municipality
Santiago de los Caballeros
Monument to the Restoration War Heroes
Monument to the Restoration War Heroes
Santiago is located in Dominican Republic
Santiago
Coordinates: 19°28′48″N 70°41′24″W / 19.48°N 70.69°W / 19.48; -70.69Coordinates: 19°28′48″N 70°41′24″W / 19.48°N 70.69°W / 19.48; -70.69
Country  Dominican Republic
Province Santiago
Founded 1495
Municipality since 1844
Municipal Districts Pedro García, Baitoa, La Canela, Jacagua, Hato del Yaque
Area[1]
 • Total 165.0 km2 (63.7 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 175 m (574 ft)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 591,985
 • Density 3,587.8/km2 (9,292.3/sq mi)
 • Urban 550,753
Demonym(s) Santiaguense
Time zone AST (UTC-4)
 • Summer (DST) AST (UTC-4)
Distance 155 km (96 mi) to Santo Domingo
Website Ayuntamiento de Santiago

Santiago de los Caballeros, or Santiago for short, is a Dominican city and the head municipality of the Santiago, in the north central region of the country. By its population and economic activity, it is the second most important city in the country, after Santo Domingo.

History[change | change source]

Christopher Columbus built a small fort in the summer of 1495, on the northern side of the Yaque del Norte river in a place named "La Emboscada". This is several kilometres to the west of the present city. Columbus named the fort after Santiago Apóstol, in English "Saint James"[3]

In 1504, Nicolás de Ovando, governor of the Hispaniola, moved the town to Jacagua which is now the municipal district of San Francisco de Jacagua. This place was near the mountains and away from the river Yaque del Norte.[3]

An earthquake destroyed the city of Santiago on 2 December 1562. The next year, 1563, the city was rebuilt again on the north side of the river Yaque del Norte but this time more to the east, where it is now. This new town was called Santiago de los Caballeros, in English, "Saint James of the Knights" or, better, "Knights of Saint James".[3]

Population[change | change source]

The city had, in 2010, a total population of 591,985: 288,746 men and 303,239 women. The urban population was 93% of the total population.[1]

The people from this city are called (demonym) in different ways; santiaguero for males and santiaguera for females. Sometimes santiagués is used for both sexes. Santiaguense (for both sexes) is used to differentiate them from people of other cities with the same name in Spain, Cuba, Chile, and Argentina).

Geography[change | change source]

The municipality of Santiago de los Caballeros has a total area of 165.0 km2 (63.7 sq mi). It has five municipal districts (a municipal district is a subdivision of a municipality). These are Pedro García, Baitoa, La Canela, San Francisco de Jacagua and Hato del Valle.[4]

Santiago de los Caballeros is at 155 km (96 mi) to the northwest of Santo Domingo and at an altitude of 175 m (574 ft) above sea level.[2]

The municipality has the municipalities of Tamboril and Licey al Medio to the east, the La Vega province to the southeast, the municipality of Jánico to the south, the municipality of San José de las Matas to the southwest, the Valverde province to the west, the municipalities of Bisonó and Villa González to the northwest and the province of Puerto Plata to the north.

Mountains[change | change source]

The Cordillera Septentrional ("Northern mountain range") runs along the northern half of the municipality. The city of Santiago de los Caballeros is on the southern side of those mountains, and even some parts of the city are on the mountains.

There are several small hills in the city; the highest is the Cerro del Castillo ("Castle Hill") in the eastern part of the city; on this hill there is a monument: the "Monumento a los Héroes de la Restauración" ( "Monument to the Restoration War Heroes"), commonly named only as the "Monumento".

Rivers[change | change source]

The river Yaque del Norte, the longest of the Dominican Republic,[2] flows along the old southern side of the city. Now, the city is on both sides of the river but most people still lives on the northern (right) side of it. Other rivers are Nibaje and Gurabito but they are very small and tributaries of the Yaque del Norte.

Climate[change | change source]

The city of Santiago de los Caballeros is located in the northeastern part of the Yaque del Norte Valley, a very dry and hot region. And so, the climate of the city is a dry tropical climate, hot most of the year (Köppen-Geiger classification: Aw).[2] The northern part of the municipality, and part of the city, is on the Cordillera Central mountain range and the climate is cooler and it rains more than in the city itself.

The average amount of rainfall for the year in the city is 1,021.7 mm (40.2 in). The month with the most precipitation on average is May with 151.2 mm (6.0 in) of rainfall, followed by November with 125.6 mm (4.9 in).[5]

The driest season is winter. The month with the least rainfall on average is February with an average of 47.7 mm (1.9 in) and the second is January with 49.8 mm (2.0 in).

Santiago de los Caballeros is in a hot region; the average temperature for the year is 25.8 °C (78.4 °F). The warmest month, on average, is August with an average temperature of 27.7 °C (81.9 °F). The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 23.5 °C (74.3 °F).

Climate data for Santiago (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
29.4
(84.9)
30.4
(86.7)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
32.9
(91.2)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
33.3
(91.9)
32.4
(90.3)
30.3
(86.5)
28.7
(83.7)
31.28
(88.31)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
24.7
(76.5)
25.5
(77.9)
26.5
(79.7)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.7
(81.9)
27.6
(81.7)
26.9
(80.4)
25.2
(77.4)
23.7
(74.7)
25.83
(78.5)
Average low °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
18.4
(65.1)
19.0
(66.2)
19.9
(67.8)
21.2
(70.2)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72)
22.2
(72)
21.9
(71.4)
21.5
(70.7)
20.2
(68.4)
18.7
(65.7)
20.46
(68.83)
Rainfall mm (inches) 49.8
(1.961)
47.7
(1.878)
59.2
(2.331)
104.4
(4.11)
151.2
(5.953)
67.6
(2.661)
56.4
(2.22)
73.1
(2.878)
96.8
(3.811)
109.7
(4.319)
125.6
(4.945)
80.2
(3.157)
1,021.7
(40.224)
Source #1: NOAA[6]
Source #2: Climatemps.com[5]

Administrative division[change | change source]

The municipality of Santiago de los Caballeros has five municipal districts:[4]

Municipal districts of Santiago
Code Municipal district Population
(2010)
250102 Pedro García 4,006
250103 Baitoa 11,778
250104 La Canela 17,067
250105 San Francisco de Jacagua 36,902
250106 Hato del Yaque 29,524

Economy[change | change source]

Even if farming is still a very important economic activity around the city, Santiago is now a modern city with many industries and companies of different kinds.

Education[change | change source]

Santiago is home of two universities: Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra (PUCMM) and Universidad Tecnológica de Santiago (UTESA). Other universities present in Santiago are: Universidad Organización & Método (O&M), Universidad Abierta para Adultos (UAPA), Universidad Nacional Evangélica and one regional campus of the state university Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD).

Twin cities[change | change source]

The twin cities of Santiago are:

Gallery[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "IX Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2010." (in Spanish) (PDF). Oficina Nacional de Estadística. June 2012. http://censo2010.one.gob.do/volumenes_censo_2010/vol1.pdf. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 De la Fuente, Santiago (1976) (in Spanish). Geografía Dominicana. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Editora Colegial Quisqueyana.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Santiago, Pedro Julio; Julio G. Campillo Pérez, Carlos Dobal (1997) (in Spanish). El Primer Santiago de América 1495-1995. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Academia Dominicana de la Historia. pp. 45-79.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "División Territorial 2015" (in Spanish) (PDF). Oficina Nacional de Estadística (ONE). October 2015. http://www.one.gob.do/Multimedia/Download?ObjId=6159. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Santiago Climate & Temperature". Climatemps.com. http://www.santiago-do.climatemps.com/precipitation.php. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  6. "Santiago Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/RA-IV/DR/78460.TXT. Retrieved 29 November 2016.


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