Shahadat (Arabic: شهدات, lit. 'Martrydom [of Umar]'), also called Youm-e-Shahadat (Arabic: يوم شهدات, lit. 'Day of Martrydom') is an Islamic holiday that occurs on the first of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. It marks the assassination of Umar ibn al-Khattab by Piruz Nahavandi.
The day is primarily observed by Sunni Muslims. They perform the ritual of Azadari for Umar. In Pakistan, the day has been an official holiday.
Etymology[change | change source]
The word Arabic word Shahadat (Arabic: شهدات) literally means 'martrydom'. It is derived from Shaheed (Arabic: شهيد) which denotes a martyr in Islam. The word Shaheed occurs frequently in the Quran in the generic sense 'witness', but only once in the sense 'martyr'; this latter sense acquires wider use in the hadiths. In Arabic, Shaheed can mean both a 'witness' and a 'martyr'.
Background[change | change source]
One 26 Dhu al-Hijjah, when Umar ibn al-Khattab was praying in the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Abu Lulu stabbed him with a double-bladed dagger. Umar died of these wounds on Sunday 1st Muharram of the Islamic year 24.
Observances[change | change source]
Shahadat has been an official holiday in Pakistan. Azadari is performed by Sunni Muslims in the country. Rallies are held in various cities including Lahore. In 2011, Tanzeem Ahl-e-Sunnat Wal Jamaat addressed gatherings in Gilgit and demanded of the government to make arrangements for observing the martyrdom day of Umar at government level. He also demanded that a official holiday should be announced on these important days. In 2014, a number of religious scholars and groups in Lahore arranged seminars. The Sipah-e-Sahaba held out a procession from the Data Darbar which was terminated in front of the Lahore Press Club after passing through various streets of the city. In their speeches, Ulema and Mashaikh demanded that 1st Muharram be declared a public holiday. The Sunni Tehreek also took out a procession to mark the day and paid tributes to Umar. In 2020, Shahadat was officially declared a holiday in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
References[change | change source]
- Khan, M. "1st Muharram: Public holiday announced on Yoam-e-Shahadat Hazrat Umar Farooq (R. A) | Jasarat". Retrieved 2021-10-13.
- Khalid Zaheer (November 22, 2013). "Definition of a shaheed". Dawn. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, μάρτυ^ς". www.perseus.tufts.edu.
- "The word shahid (plural shahada) has the meaning of "martyr" and is closely related in its development to the Greek martyrios in that it means both a witness and a martyr [...] in the latter sense only once is it attested (3:141)." David Cook, Oxford Bibliographies
- El-Hibri 2010, p. 109 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEl-Hibri2010 (help) describes the dagger as "unique", having "two pointed sharp edges, with a handle in the middle".
- Kitab al-Mihan 66; Siyar A'lam al-Nubala volume 2 page 459
- "Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA): Martyrdom Day being observed today". BOL News. 2020-08-21. Retrieved 2021-10-13.
- "Hazrat Umar Farooq's (RA) Martyrdom Day rallies held in Karachi, other cities | SAMAA". Samaa TV. Retrieved 2021-10-13.
- "Dunya News: Pakistan:-Youm-e-Shahadat Hazrat Umar (RA) observed..." dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 2021-10-13.
- "Yom-e-Shahadat of Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA) observed in Gilgit - Baltistan". PAMIR TIMES. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2021-10-13.
- Report, Dawn (2014-10-27). "ASWJ rallies in many towns to observe Yaum-i-Umar Farooq". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2021-10-13.