|c. 1,178,400 including Kohistani Shin|
|Regions with significant populations|
Urdu, serving as the lingua franca and widely understood as a second language
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Indo-Aryan peoples|
The Shina (Shin and Gilgiti also used) are a Dardic group who live in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. They live in the Gilgit region, while Baltis and the Burusho live in the Baltistan region. They speak Shina which is a Dardic language. The Shina migrated from Central Asia to South Asia during the second millennium BC. Some live in India, but they are still Muslims like the ones in Pakistan.
References[change | change source]
- "Shina". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "Shina, Kohistani". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF).
- "The Impact of Dominant Languages on Regional Languages: A Case Study of English, Urdu and Shina" (PDF). September 2020.
The researchers have observed that like every living language, Shina is rapidly changing due to its contact with Urdu and English. In schools and colleges of Gilgit-Baltistan, the medium of instruction is either Urdu or English from primary level to the higher level in universities, so the students have to learn both English and Urdu from the beginning. Moreover, Urdu is used as a lingua franca in the entire region as people from different linguistic backgrounds like Balti, Khuwaar, Wakhi and Brushashki communicate with each other in Urdu. Urdu is also used for trade purposes and by tourists from other parts of the country.
- Buddruss, Georg; Zia, Mohammad Amin; Degener, Almuth (2012). The Meeting Place: Radio Features in the Shina Language of Gilgit by Mohammad Amin Zia : Text, Interlinear Analysis and English Translation with a Glossary. Harrassowitz. ISBN 978-3-447-06673-0.
Shina is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic group which is spoken in several dialect groups in Northern Pakistan. The variety spoken in the fertile valley of the Gilgit River is known as Gilgiti Shina, as the greatest number of speakers live in and around Gilgit town. While Gilgit is a multicultural and multilingual place, Shina is the language used in the homes of the majority of the inhabitants. Most speakers use Shina as a spoken language, especially for private purposes, while Urdu is the first choice as a medium for writing and as a lingua franca current throughout Pakistan.
- Mumtaz, Mah Noor; Ihsan, Haleema; Aziz, Shahid; Hizbullah; Afridi, Sahib Gul; Shams, Sulaiman; Khan, Asifullah (2019). "The genetic composition of Shina population from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan based on mtDNA analyses". Mitochondrial DNA Part B. 4 (2): 3802–3808. doi:10.1080/23802359.2019.1682474. PMC 7710323. PMID 33366198.