Taniguchi was born in Kumamoto on July 15, 1991. After graduating from University of Tsukuba, he joined J1 League club Kawasaki Frontale in 2014. He played many matches as center back from first season. In 2017, Kawasaki won the J1 champions first time in the club history. Kawasaki also won the J1 champions in 2018 and 2020.
On June 11, 2015, Taniguchi debuted for the Japan national team against Iraq. He played 3 games for Japan until 2017.