|Republic of Singapore
"Majulah Singapura" (Malay)
|Anthem: Majulah Singapura
Location of Singapore (red)
(Downtown Core, Central)[a]
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||President||Tony Tan Keng Yam|
|-||Prime Minister||Lee Hsien Loong|
|-||Speaker of Parliament||Halimah Yacob|
|-||Chief Justice||Sundaresh Menon|
|-||Founding||6 February 1819|
|-||Self-government||3 June 1959|
the United Kingdom
|31 August 1963|
|-||Merger with Malaysia||16 September 1963|
|-||Separation from Malaysia||9 August 1965|
|-||Total||716.1 km2 (190th)
276 sq mi
|-||2013 estimate||5,399,200 (116th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|-||Per capita||$61,046 (3rd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
high · 26th
|HDI (2013)|| 0.895
very high · 19th
|Currency||Singapore dollar (SGD)|
|Time zone||SST (UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||SG|
|Internet TLD||.sg, .சிங்கப்பூர், .新加坡|
The Republic of Singapore or Temasek is an island country and city-state at the southern end of the Malay peninsula in Asia. Singapore is north of the equator. Its neighbours are Malaysia and Indonesia. About 5.40 million people live in Singapore, of which 3.31 million are citizens, and many of them (76%) are Chinese. In Sanskrit, an old Indian language, "Singapura", from which Singapore got its name, means "Lion City" commonly ruled by Sultans.
Singapore is also commonly known as a "Garden City" or a "City in a Garden" because there are trees planted everywhere, making it look like a garden.
The national language of Singapore is Malay and the other official languages of Singapore are English, Mandarin and Tamil. English is the language of choice because it is the language that almost everyone in Singapore knows. It is the first language taught in schools and the language used by the government. Students are also taught their mother tongue language. This means that the Chinese will learn Mandarin and the Malays will learn Malay, and so on. Students can also choose to learn a third language in secondary school.
Singapore is also known for Singlish, or Singaporean English, which is English mixed with some words from Malay and other local languages. The government runs a campaign, the Speak Good English Movement, against Singlish as it makes Singaporeans look less educated and intelligent than they are.
- 1 History
- 2 Government and politics
- 3 People
- 4 Culture
- 5 National flower
- 6 Economy
- 7 Geography
- 8 Relations with other countries
- 9 Land reclamation
- 10 Holidays
- 11 Records
- 12 Transportation
- 13 References
- 14 Other websites
History[change | change source]
Before 1819[change | change source]
Singapore's name comes from 'Singa Pura' which means Lion City in Sanskrit. According to the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), a Sumatran prince called Sang Nila Utama landed on Temasek (Singapore's old name) and saw a Lion which is called 'Singa' in Malay. Thus he gave the island a new name, 'Singapura'. However, Sang Nila Utama was likely mistaken, as lions never existed in Singapore. It is believed that the "lion" was actually a Malayan Tiger, which exists in neighbouring Malaysia, and is extinct in Singapore. There were also many pieces of old items that showed that Temasek was a trading port even before the British came in and took over the island.
1819 to 1940[change | change source]
Singapore was set up as a British trading town in 1819 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, and became an important town in the Malay Archipelago, "Singapore". The country was given colony rank in 1867.
When Raffles landed in Singapore, he paid the then Sultan a sum of money for a piece of land in the South of Singapore. In August 1824, Dr. John Crawfurd signed a treaty with the Sultan for control over the whole tropical island.
World War II[change | change source]
In 1941, due to the weak defenses of the country, the Japanese attacked Singapore and took control of the colony on 15 February 1942. The country was renamed to Syonan-to (pronounced as Sho-nan-to), meaning Light of the South, during the rule. The British decided to surrender to the Japanese on 15 February 1942 at the Ford Motor Factory. People of Singapore went through hard times during the Japanese rule, until the surrender of the Japanese in September 1945. This was called the Japanese occupation. Singapore was then returned back to the British.
Many people were tortured or killed by the Japanese as they did not follow the rules properly or because they were suspected of going against the Japanese.
Independence[change | change source]
In 1963 Singapore joined with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak to form the new nation of Malaysia. Malaysia is a country with many races. In Malay, only the Malays have special benefits. For example, the Malays can get university education more easily than other races.
As most people in Singapore are Chinese, Singapore wanted equality for all the people of Malaysia. Singapore also wanted a common market to be set up so that goods to Malaysia would not be taxed. However, this was not done and caused arguments between the state government of Singapore and the federal government of Malaysia.
After Independence[change | change source]
After Independence, the president of Singapore was Yusof bin Ishak and its prime minister was Lee Kuan Yew. At first, many people thought Singapore would not be able to continue on its own. In 1967 Singapore helped to start the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and in 1970 it joined the Non-Aligned Movement. Lee Kuan Yew was in charge of the country as Prime Minister of Singapore and saw it become very developed. In 1990, Goh Chok Tong replaced Lee Kuan Yew as prime minister, while Lee Kuan Yew became Senior Minister. When Goh Chok Tong was Prime Minister, Singapore went through the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the 2003 SARS outbreak and terrorist threats by Jemaah Islamiyah. In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the son of Lee Kuan Yew, took over as Prime Minister. Goh Chok Tong became the Senior Minister, and Lee Kuan Yew became the Minister Mentor of Singapore.
Government and politics[change | change source]
Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. Its constitution states representative democracy as its political system. Freedom House ranks Singapore as "partly free" in its Freedom in the World report, and The Economist ranks Singapore as a "hybrid regime", the third rank out of four, in its "Democracy Index". Singapore is ranked regularly as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, according to Transparency International.
The Cabinet has executive power, and is led by the Prime Minister, and the President. The president is elected through popular vote, and has some veto powers for a few big decisions such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judges, but otherwise occupies a post with little power.
The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of government. Members of Parliament (MPs) are made up of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) system and represent either single-member or group-representation constituencies. The People's Action Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since self-governance in 1959. However, in the most recent parliamentary elections in 2011, the opposition, led by the Workers' Party, made large and important gains and increased its representation in the House to 6 elected MPs, and two nominated MPs.
The legal system of Singapore is based on English common law, however with large and important local differences. Trial by jury was completely removed in 1970 leaving judicial judgement done completely and only by judgeship. Singapore has punishments that include judicial corporal punishment in the form of caning for rape, rioting, vandalism, and some immigration crimes. There is a mandatory death penalty for murder, and for certain drug-trafficking and firearms offences. In a 2008 survey, international business executives believed Singapore, together with Hong Kong, had the best judicial system in Asia.
People[change | change source]
Religion[change | change source]
Education[change | change source]
|Educational level of Singaporeans that are not students and are older than 15 in 2005|
Students in Singapore go through six years of compulsory Primary school, which ends with all students taking a Primary School Leaving Examination(PSLE). Then, depending on their results in the PSLE, students are streamed into "Special", "Express", "Normal (Academic)", and "Normal (Technical)" groups. The amount of time a student spends studying in Secondary school (4–5 years) depends on their group.
- Malay special programme - For non-Malay speakers
- Chinese special programme - For non-Chinese speakers
Students can take a third language as it increases their chances in getting an overseas scholarship and can improve their examination grades, especially in the GCE Ordinary Level ("O" Levels), which are Secondary students take after their five or four years of education. However, only some students can qualify to take a third language.
After their "O" Levels, students can choose to go to a polytechnic, which is a place where students can study for 3 years for a diploma or to a junior college where students study for 2 years to receive an "A" Level. Students can also go to Institutes of Technical Education (ITE), where students study for two years to receive a "National ITE Certificate" (NITEC). This certificate is only recognized in Singapore. Students who go to ITE usually continue their education at a polytechnic.
Languages[change | change source]
|Native languages of Singaporeans|
|language||% of first language speakers|
The Singapore government has chosen four official languages: English, Malay, Chinese (Mandarin), and Tamil. English is the primary language. Singapore English is the main language in Singapore.
English is the first language of the nation, but it is not the most common. English is the second most commonly spoken language among Singaporeans. The most commonly spoken language amongst Singaporeans in their homes is Chinese (51%), followed by English (32%), Malay (13%) and Tamil (3%). This means that 32% of Singaporeans are native English speakers. Most of the rest of the people speak it as a second language. However, English has the largest total number of speakers including native and second language speakers. Mandarin Chinese is the second most common.
Almost 40% of people in Singapore are foreign. Most foreigners come from Asia. The two countries where most foreigners come from are Malaysia (mostly Malaysian Chinese) and China. In 2009, there may have been 350,000 Malaysians working in Singapore. Many Chinese-speaking foreigners and Chinese-speaking Singaporeans work in services. Thus, Chinese is the main language of many workers such as hawkers, retail assistants, hairdressers, etc. in Singapore today.
Singaporean English mainly comes from British English. The forms of English spoken in Singapore range from Standard English to a pidgin called Singlish. The Singapore government and many Singaporeans are against using Singlish. There is a "Speak Good English" campaign each year. Public schools and in the media also have rules against Singlish. There are many Singapore accents in English because of the many languages and identities of people in the city. Languages can even change over the generations and children may speak different languages and have different accents from their mother. For example, in a Singaporean Chinese family, the grandmother might speak Hokkien as her first language. Differently, the mother might speak Mandarin as her first language and Hokkien/English as her second languages, while the grandson might speak English as his first language and Mandarin as his second language.
Before independence in 1965, Hokkien, a Chinese dialect, was the common language among the Chinese laborers. Malay and English were used to communicate between the different ethnic groups. After independence in 1965, English became the first language of the nation and replaced Hokkien and Malay as the one shared language. Today, most younger Singaporeans have English as their first language or are fluent in English.
Malay is a national language of Singapore because of the history of the city. However, less than 20% of Singaporeans can read and write in Malay. Malay is still used at home by most Singaporean Malays. The Malay used in Singapore (Bahasa Melayu) is closer to the language in Malaysia than the language in Indonesia. However, there are differences between the Malay in Singapore and in Malaysia. The national anthem "Majulah Singapura" is sung in Malay.
Many people speak Chinese – Mandarin and other Chinese dialects – in Singapore. Just over 50% of Singaporeans speak it at home, so it is the most common language in homes. Singaporean Mandarin is based on simplified Chinese and it is similar to the system used in mainland China. The forms of Mandarin spoken in Singapore range from Standard Mandarin to a pidgin known as Singdarin. Besides Mandarin, many southern Chinese dialects are also spoken in Singapore.
Hokkien used to be a lingua franca among the Singaporean Chinese so many older Singaporeans still understand Hokkien. The most common Chinese dialects spoken by Singaporeans are the Hokkien, Hainan, Teochew and Cantonese. However, Chinese dialects other than Mandarin are not allowed in the media, so these dialects are quickly dying out. Most younger Singaporeans do not speak them anymore.
Tamil is spoken by about 60% of Indians in Singapore. That is about 5% of all Singaporeans. Indian languages such as Malayalam, Telugu and Hindi are also spoken by a small group of Singaporean Indians in Singapore.
Culture[change | change source]
Singapore has many kinds of people and immigrants from many places. Therefore, Singaporean culture has often been described as a mix of cultures – British, Malay, Chinese, Indian and Peranakan. Also, foreigners are 42% of the population in Singapore and they are part of changing Singaporean culture.
Food[change | change source]
Dining is an important part of life in Singapore. Singaporean food is an example of the many different cultures in the country. It is also an example of mixing among cultures. British, Chinese, Indian, Malay, Tamil, and Indonesian styles of cooking all mix together. Typical Singaporean food includes: Satay, Nasi lemak, Chilli crab, and Hainanese chicken rice.
Media[change | change source]
MediaCorp, the state-owned media corporation, operates all seven local broadcast television channels in Singapore. It also runs 13 radio stations of the total 18 radio stations in Singapore. Radio and television stations are all owned by government controlled companies. However, one radio transmitter in Singapore is not controlled by the government. That is the Far Eastern Relay Station of the BBC World Service.
National flower[change | change source]
The national flower of Singapore is Vanda Miss Joaquim. It is a type of orchid and it is a hybrid orchid. This makes Singapore the only nation in the world to have a hybrid as a national flower. It was chosen because it was part of the effort to create national pride and identity.
Economy[change | change source]
Singapore has a strong and free economy that supports a large middle class. The city state is a global shipping and logistics hub and many multinational firms have their offices in Singapore. The national airline, Singapore Airlines has a large global network which brings tourists and business travelers alike, to the city.
Singapore also has a port located at the south of Singapore, called Keppel Harbour. It is one of the busiest ports around the world with many ships coming in to trade in a single day. Singapore also has another port on Jurong Island.
Money[change | change source]
Geography[change | change source]
Singapore is made up of 63 islands, including the main island, which is known as Singapore Island to most people, but is also known as Pulau Ujong. There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north, and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft).
About 23% of Singapore's land area are forest and nature reserves. Urbanisation has removed most primary rainforest, with Bukit Timah Nature Reserve the only significant remaining forest. Even though there is very little primary rainforest left, there are more than 300 parks and four nature reserves in Singapore. There are also many trees planted all over Singapore and almost fifty per cent of the country is covered by trees and plants. Because of this, Singapore is also commonly known as the 'Garden City'.
Singapore, being a small country, has been reclaiming land from the sea around the island. The first time Singapore started to reclaim land was in the 1960s. The total land area of Singapore at that time was 581.5 km2 and it has increased to 633 km2 in the 1990s, which is an increase of about 9% in total land area. It is now 704 km2 (272 sq mi), and may grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030. Some land reclamation projects involve joining together smaller islands to make larger islands with more uses, like Jurong Island. Singapore uses the landfill method to reclaim the sea at the south of the country. The country's rapid reclamation projects has made disputes with its neighbouring countries, Malaysia and Indonesia.
Climate[change | change source]
Singapore is hot and wet all year round. It has a tropical rainforest climate (Af in the Köppen climate classification), which means there are no spring, summer, autumn and winter in Singapore. There is the most rain at the end of the year, and the temperature is usually around 20 °C to 35 °C.
Although Singapore does not experience the four seasons, the period from May to June is usually warmer, while the period from November to January is cooler because of the more frequent rains and monsoonal winds in Singapore during the year-end.
|Climate data for Singapore|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.2
|Average high °C (°F)||30.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.0
|Average low °C (°F)||23.3
|Record low °C (°F)||19.4
|Rainfall mm (inches)||242.4
|Avg. rainy days||15||11||14||15||15||13||13||14||14||16||19||19||178|
|Source #1: National Environment Agency (Temp 1929–1941 and 1948–2013, Rainfall 1869–2013, Humidity 1929–1941 and 1948–2013, Rain days 1891–2013)|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961—1990)|
Relations with other countries[change | change source]
Singapore has diplomatic relations with 175 other Sovereign states. Singapore's foreign policy is to maintain a secure environment in Southeast Asia as well as the countries near Southeast Asia. A basic rule is the political and economic stability in Southeast Asia.
ASEAN[change | change source]
Singapore is part of the ASEAN (Association of the South East Asian nations) network, which is an organisation that unites all South East Asian countries. Member countries of ASEAN work with and heap other countries in ASEAN. Singapore is one of the countries that founded ASEAN.
Commonwealth of Nations[change | change source]
Land reclamation[change | change source]
Singapore, being a small country, has been reclaiming land from the sea around the island. The first time Singapore started to reclaim land was in the 1960s. The total land area of Singapore at that time was 581.5 km2 and it has increased to 633 km2 in the 1990s, which is an increase of about 9% in total land area. Singapore uses the landfill method to reclaim the sea at the south of the country. The country's rapid reclamation projects has made disputes with its neighbouring countries, Malaysia and Indonesia.
Singapore reclaims lots of land due to the following reasons:
- The small size of the country.
- There is a rising demand for more land as the population increases.
Holidays[change | change source]
Public holidays in Singapore:
- New Year's Day
- Chinese New Year (Chinese Festival) - 2 days
- Good Friday
- Labour Day
- Vesak Day (Buddhist Festival)
- National Day
- Hari Raya Puasa (Malay Festival)
- Deepavali (Indian Festival)
- Hari Raya Haji (Malay Festival)
- Christmas Day
Records[change | change source]
Singapore holds many records with its buildings and people. Some are:
|Type of record||Name of record||Received record|
|Building||Singapore Flyer||For the tallest Ferris wheel in the world|
Transportation[change | change source]
Singapore has a railway system known as the Mass Rapid Transit, or MRT in short. There are also taxi companies like Comfort Cabs, Silver Cab, SMRT Taxis, CityCab and Premier Taxi. There is one telephone number to call a taxi, of which the closest taxi from any company will respond.
The Singaporean land transport system is controlled by the LTA (Land Transport Authority) of Singapore.
Airport[change | change source]
The Singapore Changi Airport is the main airport of Singapore. It is in the east of Singapore, with a total of four terminals with airlines flying to many different parts of the world. It has also received many awards for being the best airport in the world.
References[change | change source]
- Chew, Ernest (1991). Lee, Edwin. ed. A History of Singapore. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-588917-7.
- Hoe Yeen Nie (2 June 2009). "State of Singapore came into being 50 years ago on 3 June". Channel News Asia (Singapore). http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/433440/1/.html.[dead link]
- Leitch Lepoer, Barbara (1989). "Singapore as Part of Malaysia". Library of Congress Country Studies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+sg0033). Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Statistics Singapore – Latest Data – Population & Land Area (Mid-Year Estimates)". Statistics Singapore. June 2013. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/statistics/latest_data.html#14. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "Singapore". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=81&pr.y=11&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=576&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Distribution of family income – Gini Index". CIA. 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2172rank.html. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Human Development Report 2013". United Nations. 2013. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2013_EN_Tables.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2013.[dead link]
- "Our Garden City". National Parks Board, Singapore. http://www.nparks.gov.sg/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=78&Itemid=66. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- "Republic of Singapore Independence Act, 1997 revised edition". http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/non_version/cgi-bin/cgi_getdata.pl?actno=1997-REVED-RSI&doctitle=REPUBLIC%20OF%20SINGAPORE%20INDEPENDENCE%20ACT%0A&date=latest&method=whole.
- "Language Programmes". Ministry of Education, Singapore. http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/secondary/language-programmes/. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Singapore to launch speak-good-English campaign". Agence France-Presse. http://www.singapore-window.org/sw99/90830afp.htm. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- yax-403 Poor quality English in Singapore
- Hwee Hwee Tan (22 July 2002). "A War of Words Over 'Singlish'". Time Magazine. Time Magazine. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,501020729-322685,00.html. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Early Names". www.sg. http://app.www.sg/who/30/Early-Names.aspx. Retrieved October 01, 2011.
- Cornelius-Takahama, Vernon (November 26, 1999). "Sang Nila Utama". National Library Board, Singapore. http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_93_2005-01-26.html. Retrieved October 01, 2011.
- Sir Stamford Raffles Founded Singapore[dead link]
- Japanese Occupation[dead link]
- Home/Education/Fun stuff/Timeline[dead link]
- "Road to Independence". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/singapore/10.htm. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "Independence". Ministry of Information, Communication and the Arts. http://app.www.sg/who/39/Independence.aspx. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "The Founding of ASEAN". ASEAN Secretariat. http://www.aseansec.org/the-founding-of-asean/. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Growing Our Economy - Economic Development". Ministry of Trade and Industry - Singapore. http://app.mti.gov.sg/default.asp?id=545. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- Lee Kuan Yew (1998). The Singapore Story : memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. Times Editions ; Singapore Press Holdings. ISBN 9812049835.
- Lee Kuan Yew (2000). From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965-2000, Memoirs Of Lee Kuan Yew (Vol. 2). Singapore: Times Editions, Singapore Press Holdings. ISBN 9789812049841.
- "World Factbook – Singapore". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Freedom in the World 2010 – Singapore". Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2010&country=7915. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Democracy index 2010". The Economist. 2010. http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2009". Transparency International. 2009. http://archive.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- "The Singapore Legal System". Singapore Academy of Law. http://www.singaporelaw.sg/content/LegalSyst1.html. Retrieved 26 June 2011.[dead link]
- "The President". Singaporean Government. http://www.istana.gov.sg/content/istana/thepresident.html. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Members of Parliament". Government of Singapore. http://www.parliament.gov.sg/members-parliament. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "GE: Singapore's PAP returns to power". Channel NewsAsia (Singapore). 8 May 2011. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/specialreport/news/1127434_162/1/.html.[dead link]
- "The Singapore Legal System". Singapore Academy of Law. 25 September 2007. http://www.singaporelaw.sg/content/LegalSyst.html. Retrieved 10 June 2011.[dead link]
- "Judicial caning in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei". World Corporal Punishment Research. 2008. http://www.corpun.com/singfeat.htm. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- Kuntz, Tom (26 June 1994). "Ideas & Trends; Beyond Singapore: Corporal Punishment, A to Z". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/26/weekinreview/ideas-trends-beyond-singapore-corporal-punishment-a-to-z.html?scp=29&sq=?pagewanted=1.
- "Singapore country specific information". U.S. Department of State. 19 March 2010. http://www.travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1017.html#crime.
- "Hong Kong has best judicial system in Asia: business survey". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse (Philippines). 15 September 2008. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/world/09/15/08/hong-kong-has-best-judicial-system-asia-business-survey. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Singapore Census 2010 Statistical Release 1". Singapore Department of Statistics. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/c2010sr1/cop2010sr1.pdf. Retrieved September 30, 2011.[dead link]
- "Education and Language". Singaporean government. http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/ghsr1/chap2.pdf. Retrieved 11 April 2011.[dead link]
- "Compulsory Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. http://www.moe.gov.sg/initiatives/compulsory-education/. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Secondary School Courses". Ministry of Education, Singapore. http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/secondary/courses/. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "MOE Language Centre Benefits". Ministry of Education, Singapore. 2007. http://www.moelc.moe.edu.sg/benefits/benefits.htm. Retrieved 2010-12-20.[dead link]
- "Language Programmes". Ministry of Education, Singapore. 2011. http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/secondary/language-programmes/. Retrieved 2011-9-20.
- "Post-Secondary Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/post-secondary/index.php#polytechnics. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Pre-University Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/pre-u/. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "From Pre-University to University Education". Ministry of Education, Singapore. http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/pre-u/pre-u-to-university/. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Gupta, A.F.. Fischer, K.. ed. "Epistemic modalities and the discourse particles of Singapore" (DOC). Approaches to Discourse Particles (Amsterdam: Elsevier): 244–263. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/english/staff/afg/pragp3.doc.
- Literacy and language[dead link], Singapore Census of Population, 2000. Singapore Department of Statistics (December 2000).
- "Trends in international migrant stock: The 2008 revision", United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009).
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Sorry, no English
- What are some commonly misspelled English words? | ASK!
- A war of words is brewing over Singlish - TIME
- Singapore - Language Planning
- "Population Trends 2009"[dead link], Singapore Department of Statistics. ISSN 1793-2424
- "Singapore Dining". App.www.sg. http://app.www.sg/where/default.aspx. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- MeRadio on the iPhone, iPod touch, and the iPad on the iTunes App Store - Retrieved December 16, 2010
- Our national flower - Retrieved December 11, 2010
- PSA Singapore[dead link]
- News about their joint agreement on English Wikinews
- Savage, Victor R.; Yeoh, Brenda S.A. (2004). Toponymics: A Study of Singapore's Street Names. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press. ISBN 9789812103642.
- "Bukit Timah Hill". Heritage Trails. http://heritagetrails.sg/content/148/Bukit_Timah_Hill.html. Retrieved 22 April 2010.[dead link]
- "Forests, grasslands and drylands – Singapore". World Resources Institute. 2003. http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/country_profiles/for_cou_702.pdf. Retrieved 2 July 2011.[dead link]
- "Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change: Singapore". Earthshots. http://earthshots.usgs.gov/Singapore/Singapore. Retrieved 18 February 2011.[dead link]
- "Interesting facts of our Garden City". http://www.nparks.gov.sg/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=198&Itemid=66#_ftnref2. Retrieved 18 October 2011.[dead link]
- "21st Century Singapore - Land Reclamation". ORACLE ThinkQuest. http://library.thinkquest.org/C006891/reclamation.html. Retrieved 20 April 2011.[dead link]
- "Towards Environmental Sustainability, State of the Environment 2005 Report" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources. http://app.nea.gov.sg/counter/nea_soecover.asp. Retrieved 22 April 2010.[dead link]
- "Singapore". The World Factbook. CIA. 1 September 2010. section Transnational issues. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html. Retrieved 20 April 2011. "disputes persist with Malaysia over […] extensive land reclamation works"
- About Singapore - Retrieved on 23 November 2010
- "WEATHERWise Singapore". National Environment Agency. 2009. http://app2.nea.gov.sg/data/cmsresource/20090721544571208250.pdf. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
- "Weather Statistics". National Environment Agency. http://app2.nea.gov.sg/weather-climate/climate-information/weather-statistics. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Singapore/Changi Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/TABLES/REG__V/SR/48698.TXT. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Singapore Missions Overseas". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.gov.sg/dipcon/singapore_mission_locator.html?domain=MFA. Retrieved October 20, 2011.[dead link]
- "Australia – New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (AANZFTA)". New Zealand Government. 4 December 2008. http://www.asean.fta.govt.nz/singapore-foreign-relations. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- ASEAN rocks, a website showing Singapore's support of ASEAN - retrieved November 25, 2010
- Singapore in the Commonwealth - retrieved November 25, 2010
- Ministry of Manpower, Singapore. List of public holidays Retrieved on November 22, 2010
- Ministry of Education, Singapore. List of holidays
- About Singapore Flyer - Singapore Flyer[dead link] - Retrieved December 11, 2010
- "Taxi Companies in Singapore". Singapore Taxi. http://www.taxisingapore.com/taxi-companies/. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- Land Transport Authority (2008-07-16). "One Common Taxi Number". Press release. http://app.lta.gov.sg/corp_press_content.asp?start=1970. Retrieved 2010-12-20.[dead link]
- "About Us - Ridership". SBS Transit Ltd. 2010. http://www.sbstransit.com.sg/about/operational.aspx. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- "SMRT Website - Monthly total MRT Ridership". SMRT Corporation Ltd. 2010. http://www.smrt.com.sg/investors/key_operating_matrix_MRT.asp. Retrieved 2010-12-20.[dead link]
- "About LTA". http://www.lta.gov.sg/corp_info/index_corp_abt.htm. Retrieved September 24, 2011.[dead link]
- "Changi named World's Best Airport". channelnewsasia.com. 24 March 2010. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/1045522/1/.html. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- Tan, Bonny (December 6, 2001). "Changi International Airport - Singapore Infopedia". National Library Board Singapore. http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_574_2004-12-23.html. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
Other websites[change | change source]
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Singapore Food Guide
- CIA World Factbook information about Singapore
- Singapore's gateway website
- Interactive map of Singapore
- Speak good English movement