8 min 19 s at light speed
|Visual brightness (V)||−26.74|
|Metallicity||Z = 0.0122|
|Angular size||31.6′ – 32.7′|
from Milky Way core
|Galactic period||(2.25–2.50)×108 a|
|Velocity||~220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Galaxy)
~20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
~370 km/s (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
|Mean diameter||1.392684×106 km|
|Equatorial radius||6.96342×105 km
109 × Earth
|Equatorial circumference||4.379×106 km
109 × Earth
|Surface area||6.0877×1012 km2
11990 × Earth
1300000 × Earth
333000 × Earth
|Average density||1.408×103 kg/m3|
|Density||Center (model): 1.622×105 kg/m3
Lower photosphere: 2×10−4 kg/m3
Lower chromosphere: 5×10−6 kg/m3
Corona (avg): 1×10−12 kg/m3
|Equatorial surface gravity||274.0 m/s2
28 × Earth
(from the surface)
55 × Earth
|Temperature||Center (modeled): ~1.57×107 K
Photosphere (effective): 5778 K
Corona: ~5×106 K
|Luminosity (Lsol)||3.846×1026 W
~98 lm/W efficacy
|Mean intensity (Isol)||2.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1|
|Age||4.57 billion years|
(to the ecliptic)
(to the galactic plane)
of North pole
19 h 4 min 30 s
of North pole
63° 52' North
|Sidereal rotation period
|(at 16° latitude)||25.38 days
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s
|(at poles)||34.4 days|
|Photospheric composition (by mass)|
- For the newspaper, see The Sun (newspaper)
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is seen in the sky and gives light to the Earth. When the Sun is in the sky, it is day. When the Sun is not in the sky, it is night. The planets, including Earth, orbit around it.
The Sun gives off energy as electromagnetic radiation. That includes light, infra-red energy (heat), ultraviolet light and radio waves. It also gives off a stream of particles, which reaches Earth as "solar wind". The source of all this energy is the reaction in the star which turns hydrogen into helium and makes huge amounts of energy.
The Sun is a star like many others in our Milky Way galaxy. It has existed for a little over 4.5 billion years, and is going to continue for at least as long. The Sun is about a hundred times as wide as the Earth. It has a mass of 1.9891×1030 kg, which is 333,000 times the mass of the Earth. The Earth can also fit inside the Sun 1.3 million times.
Physics of the Sun[change | change source]
Its origin[change | change source]
At the center of that huge cloud, gravity caused the material started to build up into a ball. Once this got big enough, the huge pressure inside started a fusion reaction. The energy this released caused that ball to heat and shine.
The energy radiated from the Sun pushed away the rest of the cloud from itself, and the planets formed from the rest of this cloud.
How the Sun works[change | change source]
At its very center, hydrogen atoms collide together at great temperature and pressure so that they fuse to form atoms of helium. This process is called nuclear fusion. This fusion changes a very small part of the hydrogen atoms into a large amount of energy. This energy then travels from the core to the surface of the Sun. The Sun's surface is called the photosphere and is where it shines the energy into space. Energy can take thousands of years to reach the Sun's surface because the Sun is so huge and most of the way the energy is passed from atom to atom.
Visible features of the Sun[change | change source]
Since the Sun is all gas, surface features come and go. If the Sun is viewed through a special solar telescope, dark areas called sunspots can be seen. These areas are caused by the Sun's magnetic field. The sunspots only look dark because the rest of the Sun is very bright.
Some space telescopes, including the ones that orbit the Sun have seen huge arches of the Sun's matter extend suddenly from the Sun. These are called solar prominences. Solar prominences come in many different shapes and sizes. Some of them are so large that the Earth could fit inside of them, and a few are shaped like hands. Solar flares also come and go.
Sunspots, prominences and flares become rare, and then numerous, and then rare again, every 11 years.
Photosphere[change | change source]
Atmosphere of the Sun[change | change source]
Five layers make up the atmosphere of the Sun. The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the outer photosphere surface of the Sun. It is believed that Alfvén waves may pass through to heat the corona.
The minimum temperature zone, the coolest layer of the Sun, is about 500 km above the photosphere. It has a temperature of about 4100 K. This part of the Sun is cool enough to allow simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water to form. those molecules can be seen on the Sun with special instruments called spectroscopes.
The chromosphere is the first layer of the Sun which can be seen, especially during a solar eclipse when the moon is covering most of the Sun and blocking the brightest light.
The solar transition region is the part of the Sun's atmosphere, between the chromosphere and outer part called the corona. It can be seen from space using telescopes that can sense ultraviolet light. The transition is between two very different layers. In the bottom part it touches the photosphere and gravity shapes the features. At the top, the transition layer touches the corona.
The corona is the outer atmosphere of the Sun and is much bigger than the rest of the Sun. The corona continuously expands into space forming the solar wind, which fills all the Solar System. The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1,000,000–2,000,000 K. In the hottest regions it is 8,000,000–20,000,000 K. We do not understand why the corona is so hot. It can be seen during a solar eclipse or with an instrument called a coronagraph.
The heliosphere is the thin outer atmosphere of the Sun, filled with the solar wind plasma. It extends out past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause, where it forms a boundary where it collides with the interstellar medium.
Eclipses[change | change source]
A solar eclipse appears when the moon is between the Earth and Sun. The last partial eclipse seen in Britain was on the 20th March 2015.
A Lunar eclipse happens when the moon passes through the shadow of the Earth which can only occur during a full moon.The number of lunar eclipses in a single year can range from 0 to 3. Partial eclipses slightly outnumber total eclipses by 7 to 6.
The fate of the Sun[change | change source]
Astrophysicists say our Sun is a G-type main-sequence star in the middle of its life. In a billion years or so, increased solar energy will boil away the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. In a few more billion years, they think the Sun will get bigger and become a red giant star. The Sun would be up to 250 times its current size, as big as 1.4 AU and will swallow up the earth.
Earth's fate is still a bit of a mystery. Calculations suggest that Earth could escape to a higher orbit. This is because about 30% of the Sun's mass will have blown away in the solar wind. A newer study suggests that Earth would possibly be dragged into the bigger Sun due to tidal deceleration. This would happen while the Sun continues to get bigger. Anyway, Earth's ocean and air would have vanished long before the Sun finishes its main sequence stage.
After the Sun reaches a point where it can no longer get bigger, it will lose its layers and form a planetary nebula. Eventually, the Sun will shrink into a white dwarf. Then, over several hundred billion or even a trillion years, the Sun would fade into a black dwarf.
More reading[change | change source]
- Lang, Kenneth R. (2001). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Sun. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521780933.
References[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sun|
- Williams, D.R. (2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Asplund, M.; N. Grevesse and A.J. Sauval (2006). "The new solar abundances - Part I: the observations". Communications in Asteroseismology 147: 76–79. doi:10.1553/cia147s76.
- "Eclipse 99: Frequently asked questions". NASA. http://education.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/pages/faq.html. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- Hinshaw, G.; et al. (2009). "Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results". The Astrophysical Journal supplement series 180 (2): 225–245. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225.
- "Measuring the solar radius from space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury transits", arXiv, 2012, http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4898, retrieved March 28, 2012
- "Solar System exploration: Planets: Sun: facts & figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080102034758/http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric.
- Ko, M. (1999). "Density of the Sun". In Elert, G.. The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/MayKo.shtml.
- "Principles of Spectroscopy". University of Michigan, Astronomy Department. 30 August 2007. http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/undergrad/Labs/spectro/short_spectro.html.
- Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2008). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics 390 (3): 1115–1118. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749.
- Seidelmann, P. K.; et al. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-22.
- "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html. Retrieved 2008-07-29., citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-402/contents.htm.
- Connelly, James N. et al (2012). "The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk". Science 338 (6107): 651–655. doi:10.1126/science.1226919. PMID 23118187.
- Abhyankar K.D. (1977). "A survey of the solar atmospheric models". Bull. Astr. Soc. India 5: 40–44. http://prints.iiap.res.in/handle/2248/510.
- De Pontieu B. et al (2007). "Chromospheric Alfvénic waves strong enough to power the solar wind". Science 318 (5856): 1574–77. doi:10.1126/science.1151747. PMID 18063784.
- Solanki S.K; Livingston W. & Ayres T (1994). "New light on the heart of darkness of the solar chromosphere". Science 263 (5143): 64–66. doi:10.1126/science.263.5143.64. PMID 17748350.
- "The Transition Region". Solar Physics, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. NASA. http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/t_region.shtml.
- Russell, C.T. (2001). "Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic filed: A tutorial". In Song, Paul; Singer, Howard J. and Siscoe, George L. (PDF). Space weather (Geophysical Monograph). American Geophysical Union. pp. 73–88. ISBN 978-0-87590-984-4. http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/SolWindTutorial.pdf.
- Erdèlyi R. & Ballai I. 2007. Heating of the solar and stellar coronae: a review. Astron. Nachr. 328 (8): 726–733
- European Space Agency (2005). "The distortion of the Heliosphere: our interstellar magnetic compass". Press release. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=16394. Retrieved 2006-03-22.
☾ = moon(s) ∅ = rings
|Mercury||Venus||Earth ☾||Mars ☾|
|Jupiter ☾ ∅||Saturn ☾ ∅||Uranus ☾ ∅||Neptune ☾ ∅|
|Dwarf planets||Ceres||Pluto ☾||Haumea ☾||Makemake|
|Groups and families: Vulcanoids · Near-Earth asteroids · Asteroid belt
Jupiter Trojans · Centaurs · Neptune Trojans · Asteroid moons · Meteoroids · Pallas · Juno · Vesta · Hygiea · Interamnia · Europa
|See also the list of asteroids.|
|Kuiper belt – Plutinos: Orcus · Ixion – Cubewanos: Varuna ·
Quaoar · Huya
|Scattered disc: Sedna|
|Comets||Periodic comets and non-periodic comets
Damocloids · Oort cloud
|See also the list of solar system objects|