|1 au ≈ 1.496×108 km|
8 min 19 s at light speed
|Visual brightness (V)||−26.74|
|Metallicity||Z = 0.0122|
|Angular size||31.6–32.7 minutes of arc|
from Milky Way core
|≈ 2.7×1017 km|
|Galactic period||(2.25–2.50)×108 yr|
|Velocity||≈ 220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Milky Way) |
≈ 20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
≈ 370 km/s (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
|Equatorial radius||695,700 km,|
109 × Earth
|Equatorial circumference||4.379×106 km|
109 × Earth
|Surface area||6.09×1012 km2|
12,000 × Earth
1,300,000 × Earth
333,000 × Earth
|Average density||1.408 g/cm3|
0.255 × Earth
|Center density (modeled)||162.2 g/cm3|
12.4 × Earth
|Equatorial surface gravity||274 m/s2|
28 × Earth
|Moment of inertia factor||0.070 (estimate)|
(from the surface)
55 × Earth
|Temperature||Center (modeled): 1.57×107 K|
Photosphere (effective): 5,778 K
Corona: ≈ 5×106 K
|Luminosity (Lsol)||3.828×1026 W|
≈ 3.75×1028 lm
≈ 98 lm/W efficacy
|Mean radiance (Isol)||2.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1|
|Age||≈ 4.6 billion years|
(to the ecliptic)
(to the galactic plane)
of North pole
19 h 4 min 30 s
of North pole
63° 52' North
|Sidereal rotation period |
|(at 16° latitude)||25.38 d|
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s
|(at poles)||34.4 d|
|Photospheric composition (by mass)|
The Sun is a star which is located at the center of our solar system. It is a yellow dwarf star. It gives off energy as light. That includes light, infra-red energy (heat), ultraviolet light and radio waves. It also gives off a stream of particles, which reaches Earth as "solar wind". The source of all this energy is nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is the reaction in the star which turns hydrogen into helium and makes huge amounts of energy.
The Sun is a star like many others in our Milky Way galaxy. The Sun is a type of star called a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class. It has existed for a little over 4.5 billion years. It is going to continue for at least as long. The Sun is about a hundred times as wide as the Earth. It has a mass of 1.9891×1030 kg. This is 333,000 times the mass of the Earth. 1.3 million Earths can fit inside the Sun.
General characteristics[change | change source]
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. The Sun comprises about 99.86% of the mass of the Solar System. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83. It is estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. The Sun is a Population I star.
Physics of the Sun[change | change source]
Origin[change | change source]
At the center of that huge cloud, gravity caused the material to build up into a ball. Once this got big enough, the huge pressure inside started a fusion reaction. The energy this released caused that ball to heat and shine.
The energy radiated from the Sun pushed away the rest of the cloud from itself, and the planets formed from the rest of this cloud.
How it works[change | change source]
- At its very center, hydrogen atoms collide together at great temperature and pressure so that they fuse to form atoms of helium. This process is called nuclear fusion.
The sun can also be used as a source of solar energy.
Orbit[change | change source]
The Sun and everything that orbits it is in the Milky Way. The Sun orbits around the centre of the Milky Way. It takes along everything in the Solar System. The Sun moves at 820,000 km an hour. At that speed, it still takes 230 million years for a full orbit.
Visible features[change | change source]
Since the Sun is all gas, surface features come and go. If the Sun is viewed through a special solar telescope, dark areas called sunspots can be seen. These areas are caused by the Sun's magnetic field. The sunspots only look dark because the rest of the Sun is very bright.
Some space telescopes, including the ones that orbit the Sun have seen huge arches of the Sun's matter extend suddenly from the Sun. These are called solar prominences. Solar prominences come in many different shapes and sizes. Some of them are so large that the Earth could fit inside of them, and a few are shaped like hands. Solar flares also come and go.
Sunspots, prominences and flares become rare, and then numerous, and then rare again, every 11 years.
Photosphere[change | change source]
Composition[change | change source]
The Sun's chemical composition was gotten from the interstellar medium. The hydrogen and most of the helium in the Sun would have been produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis in the first 20 minutes of the universe. The heavier elements were produced by stars that died before the Sun was formed. The heavier elements were released into the interstellar medium when the star exploded as a supernovae.
Atmosphere[change | change source]
Five layers make up the atmosphere of the Sun. The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the outer photosphere surface of the Sun. It is believed that Alfvén waves may pass through to heat the corona.
The minimum temperature zone, the coolest layer of the Sun, is about 500 kilometres (310 miles) above the photosphere. It has a temperature of about 4,100 K (3,830 °C; 6,920 °F). This part of the Sun is cool enough to allow simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water to form. These molecules can be seen on the Sun with special instruments called spectroscopes.
The chromosphere is the first layer of the Sun which can be seen, especially during a solar eclipse when the moon is covering most of the Sun and blocking the brightest light.
The solar transition region is the part of the Sun's atmosphere, between the chromosphere and outer part called the corona. It can be seen from space using telescopes that can sense ultraviolet light. The transition is between two very different layers. In the bottom part it touches the photosphere and gravity shapes the features. At the top, the transition layer touches the corona.
The corona is the outer atmosphere of the Sun and is much bigger than the rest of the Sun. The corona continuously expands into space forming the solar wind, which fills all the Solar System. The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1,000,000–2,000,000 K (1,800,000–3,600,000 °F). In the hottest regions it is 8,000,000–20,000,000 K (14,400,000–36,000,000 °F). We do not understand why the corona is so hot. It can be seen during a solar eclipse or with an instrument called a coronagraph.
The heliosphere is the thin outer atmosphere of the Sun, filled with the solar wind plasma. It extends out past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause, where it forms a boundary where it collides with the interstellar medium.
Eclipses[change | change source]
A solar eclipse appears when the moon is between the Earth and Sun. The last total solar eclipse occurred on Dec. 26, 2019, and was visible from Saudi Arabia, India, Sumatra and Borneo, with a partial eclipse visible in Australia and much of Asia.
A lunar eclipse happens when the moon passes through the shadow of the Earth which can only occur during a full moon.The number of lunar eclipses in a single year can range from 0 to 3. Partial eclipses slightly outnumber total eclipses by 7 to 6.
Fate of the Sun[change | change source]
Astrophysicists say our Sun is a G-type main-sequence star in the middle of its life. In a billion years or so, increased solar energy will boil away the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. In a few more billion years, they think the Sun will get bigger and become a red giant star. The Sun would be up to 250 times its current size, as big as 1.4 AU (210,000,000 kilometres; 130,000,000 miles) and will swallow up the Earth.
Earth's fate is still a bit of a mystery. In the long term, the Earth's future depends on the Sun, and the Sun is going to be fairly stable for the next 5 billion years. Calculations suggest that the Earth might move to a wider orbit. This is because about 30% of the Sun's mass will blow away in the solar wind. However, in the very long term the Earth will probably be destroyed as the Sun increases in size. Stars like the Sun become red giants at a later stage. The Sun will expand beyond orbits of Mercury, Venus, and probably Earth. In any event, the ocean and air would have vanished before the Sun gets to that stage.
After the Sun reaches a point where it can no longer get bigger, it will lose its layers and form a planetary nebula. Eventually, the Sun will shrink into a white dwarf. Then, over several hundred billion or even a trillion years, the Sun would fade into a black dwarf.
More reading[change | change source]
- Lang, Kenneth R. (2001). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Sun. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521780933.
References[change | change source]
- Pitjeva, E. V.; Standish, E. M. (2009). "Proposals for the masses of the three largest asteroids, the Moon-Earth mass ratio and the Astronomical Unit". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 103 (4): 365–372. doi:10.1007/s10569-009-9203-8. ISSN 1572-9478.
- Williams, D.R. (1 July 2013). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Zombeck, Martin V. (1990). Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.
- Asplund, M.; Grevesse, N.; Sauval, A.J. (2006). "The new solar abundances – Part I: the observations". Communications in Asteroseismology. 147: 76–79. Bibcode:2006CoAst.147...76A. doi:10.1553/cia147s76.
- "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Hinshaw, G.; et al. (2009). "Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 180 (2): 225–245. arXiv:0803.0732. Bibcode:2009ApJS..180..225H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225.
- Mamajek, E.E.; Prsa, A.; Torres, G.; et, al. (2015). "IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties". arXiv:1510.07674 [astro-ph.SR].
- Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Bush, Rock I.; Scholl, Isabelle F. (2012), "Measuring the Solar Radius from Space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury Transits", The Astrophysical Journal, 750 (2): 135, arXiv:1203.4898, Bibcode:2012ApJ...750..135E, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/135
- "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Ko, M. (1999). Elert, G. (ed.). "Density of the Sun". The Physics Factbook.
- Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2002). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 390 (3): 1115–1118. arXiv:astro-ph/0204331. Bibcode:2002A&A...390.1115B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Connelly, JN; Bizzarro, M; Krot, AN; Nordlund, Å; Wielandt, D; Ivanova, MA (2 November 2012). "The Absolute Chronology and Thermal Processing of Solids in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk". Science. 338 (6107): 651–655. Bibcode:2012Sci...338..651C. doi:10.1126/science.1226919. PMID 23118187. Retrieved 17 March 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)(registration required)
- Seidelmann, P.K.; et al. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2006. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 29 July 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.
- Connelly, J. N.; Bizzarro, M.; Krot, A. N.; Nordlund, A.; Wielandt, D.; Ivanova, M. A. (2012-11-02). "The Absolute Chronology and Thermal Processing of Solids in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk". Science. 338 (6107): 651–655. doi:10.1126/science.1226919. ISSN 0036-8075.
- Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2002). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 390 (3): 1115–1118. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749. ISSN 0004-6361.
- January 2006, Ker Than 30. "Astronomers Had it Wrong: Most Stars are Single". Space.com. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
- Lada, Charles J. (2006-03-20). "Stellar Multiplicity and the Initial Mass Function: Most Stars Are Single". The Astrophysical Journal. 640 (1): L63–L66. doi:10.1086/503158. ISSN 0004-637X.
- Zeilik, Michael. (1998). Introductory astronomy & astrophysics. Gregory, Stephen A. (4th ed ed.). Belmont Drive, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. ISBN 0-03-006228-4. OCLC 38157539.
|edition=has extra text (help)
- "Stellar parameters". Space Science Reviews. 43 (3–4). 1986. doi:10.1007/BF00190626. ISSN 0038-6308.
- Simon, Anne Elizabeth, 1956- (2001). The real science behind the X-files : microbes, meteorites, and mutants (1st Touchstone ed ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85618-2. OCLC 48151793.
|edition=has extra text (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Connelly, James N.; et al. (2012). "The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk". Science. 338 (6107): 651–655. Bibcode:2012Sci...338..651C. doi:10.1126/science.1226919. PMID 23118187.
- Lodders, Katharina (2003-07-10). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements". The Astrophysical Journal. 591 (2): 1220–1247. doi:10.1086/375492. ISSN 0004-637X.
- Hansen, Carl J. (2004). Stellar interiors : physical principles, structure, and evolution. Kawaler, Steven D., Trimble, Virginia. (2nd ed. ed.). New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-20089-4. OCLC 53083938.
|edition=has extra text (help)
- Abhyankar K.D. (1977). "A survey of the solar atmospheric models". Bull. Astr. Soc. India. 5: 40–44. Bibcode:1977BASI....5...40A.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- De Pontieu B.; et al. (2007). "Chromospheric Alfvénic waves strong enough to power the solar wind". Science. 318 (5856): 1574–77. Bibcode:2007Sci...318.1574D. doi:10.1126/science.1151747. PMID 18063784.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Solanki S.K; Livingston W. & Ayres T (1994). "New light on the heart of darkness of the solar chromosphere". Science. 263 (5143): 64–66. Bibcode:1994Sci...263...64S. doi:10.1126/science.263.5143.64. PMID 17748350.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "The Transition Region". Solar Physics, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. NASA.
- Russell, C.T. (2001). "Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic filed: A tutorial". Space weather (Geophysical Monograph) (PDF). American Geophysical Union. pp. 73–88. ISBN 978-0-87590-984-4. Unknown parameter
- Erdèlyi R. & Ballai I. 2007. Heating of the solar and stellar coronae: a review. Astron. Nachr. 328 (8): 726–733
- European Space Agency (2005). "The distortion of the Heliosphere: our interstellar magnetic compass". Press release. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=16394. Retrieved 2006-03-22.
- The Sun's evolution
- Goldsmith D. & Owen T. 2001. The search for life in the universe. University Science Books, p. 96. ISBN 978-1-891389-16-0
- Schröder K.-P. & Smith R.C. 2008. Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 155–163. 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sun.|