Table of keyboard shortcuts

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Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE / GNOME Emacs Vim Chrome OS
File menu Alt+F, or F10 then F Ctrl+F2, then F[notes 2] Alt+F Meta+`, then f Alt+f (gvim)

or Ctrl+e (vim + NERDTree)

Ctrl+O
Edit menu Alt+E Ctrl+F2, then E[notes 2] Alt+E Meta+`, then e Alt+e (gvim)
View menu Alt+V Ctrl+F2, then V[notes 2] Alt+V
Undo the last operation Ctrl+Z, or
Alt+Backspace
⌘ Cmd+Z Ctrl+Z Ctrl+x, then u or

Ctrl+/ or Ctrl+_ or Undo

u Ctrl+Z
Redo the last operation Ctrl+Y, or Shift+Alt+Backspace ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Z ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Z, or Ctrl+Y Same as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos. Ctrl+r Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Z
Cut the selection and store it in the clipboard Ctrl+X, or ⇧ Shift+Del ⌘ Cmd+X Ctrl+X Ctrl+w x

or "ax to cut in register "a" or "+x to cut in system clipboard

Ctrl+X
Copy the selection into the clipboard Ctrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins ⌘ Cmd+C Ctrl+C Meta+w, or Ctrl+Ins y

or "ay or "+y

Ctrl+C
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Ctrl+V,or ⇧ Shift+Ins ⌘ Cmd+V Ctrl+V Ctrl+y, or ⇧ Shift+Ins p

or "ap to paste the content of the "a" register or "+p to paste the content of the system clipboard

Ctrl+V
Paste special Shift+Opt+Cmd+V Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V Meta+y Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V Ctrl+⇧ Shift+V
Select all in focused control or window Ctrl+A ⌘ Cmd+A Ctrl+A Ctrl+x, then h ggVG, unlikely ever needed as most commands take an optional range parameter. % means "all in focused windows" here so e.g. to copy all the text, use :%y Ctrl+A
Cycle through installed keyboard languages / input methods ⇧ Shift+Alt, or ⊞ Win+Space

The latter displays a menu with the currently selected input method highlighted, and debuted in Windows 8.

Cmd+Space (not MBR)

Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse Preferences, Keyboard Shortcuts, Select the next source in Input menu.[1]

Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard

⇧ Shift+Alt in GNOME

Ctrl+\ Ctrl+Space
Print Ctrl+P ⌘ Cmd+P Ctrl+P
Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE/GNOME Chrome OS
New browser window with same page as current Ctrl+N
(for Internet Explorer, Google Chrome and Chromium, Mozilla Firefox)
⌘ Cmd+T Ctrl+N
New folder Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+N Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N
Applications menu ⊞ Win or
Ctrl+Esc
Ctrl+F2, then "n"[notes 2] Alt+<letter>

e.g. for File Alt+F

Search
Lock desktop ⊞ Win+L[2] Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Q[3] (macOS High Sierra and greater)
or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Eject or MBR Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Pwr

(If "Require password after sleep or screen saver" is enabled in "System Preferences — Security & Privacy")

Ctrl+Alt+L Power (Hold for 3 seconds)
Show desktop ⊞ Win+D F11 Ctrl+Alt+D
Minimize all windows ⊞ Win+M, then use ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+M to bring back all windows Ctrl+Super+D
Log out user ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Q Ctrl+Alt+Delete Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Q (Twice)
Switch active user ⊞ Win+L[notes 3]
Task manager Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc,
Ctrl+Alt+Delete[notes 4]
⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Esc Ctrl+Esc Search+Esc
Rename object F2 ↵ Enter[notes 5] or F2 F2
Open file or program ↵ Enter or ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter ⌘ Cmd+O or ⌘ Cmd+ ↵ Enter
Switch window (next/previous) Alt+Tab ↹ /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Tab ↹

⌘ Cmd+Tab ↹ /

⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+Tab ↹

Ctrl+Tab ↹ /

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Hold Alt, then quickly press Tab ↹
Switch window without dialog (next/previous) Alt+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Alt+Esc

Only works within single Applications

⌘ Cmd+` / ⌘ Cmd+~

Ctrl+Esc /

⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Esc

Run application ⊞ Win, enter executable name or

⊞ Win+R, enter executable name

⌘ Cmd+Space, enter executable name or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+F2, enter executable name
Search ⊞ Win, enter executable name or
⊞ Win+S or F3
⌘ Cmd+Space Search
Show Hidden Files ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+., while in Finder, will toggle setting
Action Windows macOS KDE / GNOME Chrome OS
Place computer into sleep/standby mode Windows 10: ⊞ Win+xus

Windows 7: ⊞ Win+++↵ Enter

Sleep (available on some keyboards)

⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Eject Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel ➢ Power Options ➢ Advanced tab dialog box)
Task manager/Force quit Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+Esc Search+Esc
Shut down computer Windows 10: ⊞ Win+xuu Ctrl+⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Eject

(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+PageDown

(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Power (Hold for 10 seconds)
Restart computer Windows 10: ⊞ Win+xur
Windows 7: ⊞ Win++++↵ Enter
Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Eject[4] or Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+Power

(no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+PageUp

(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Place display in sleep mode Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Eject
Bring up power/sleep dialog box Ctrl+Eject
Force shutdown Power (Hold for several seconds) ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+Eject refresh+power
Action Windows macOS KDE / GNOME
Save screenshot of entire screen as file ⊞ Win+Print Screen ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+3[5] Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME Shell[6]
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboard ⊞ Win+Print Screen or Print Screen Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+3 Ctrl+Print Screen
Copy screenshot of active window to clipboard Alt+Print Screen Ctrl+Alt+Print Screen
Save screenshot of window as file ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then Space then move mouse and click Alt+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME[6]
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then click+drag mouse over required area ⇧ Shift+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME[6]
Copy screenshot of window to clipboard Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then Space then move mouse and click Alt+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME[6]
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboard Windows 10: ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+S Ctrl+⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+4 then click+drag mouse over required area ⇧ Shift+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME[6]
Screencasting Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Alt+R[7][8]
Screenshot Utility OSX Mojave: ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+5[9]


Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE / GNOME Emacs Vim Chrome OS
Delete char to the right of cursor Del or

Fn+← Backspace

Del or

Fn+← Backspace

Del Ctrl+d x Alt+← Backspace or Del
Delete word to the right of cursor Ctrl+Del ⌥ Opt+Del or

⌥ Opt+Fn+← Backspace

Ctrl+Del Meta+d dw
(delete space too)or

de (keep space)

Delete word to the left of cursor Ctrl+← Backspace ⌥ Opt+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace Ctrl+← Backspace or

Meta+← Backspace

dge
(delete space too)or

db (keep space)

← Backspace
Go to start of line Home or

Fn+

⌘ Cmd+ or

Ctrl+A

Home Ctrl+a or

Home

^
(go to first non-space) or
0
(go to column 0)
Go to end of line End or

Fn+

⌘ Cmd+ or

Ctrl+E

End Ctrl+e or

End

$
Go to start of document Ctrl+Home ⌘ Cmd+ Ctrl+Home Meta+< or

Ctrl+Home

gg Ctrl+search+
Go to end of document Ctrl+End ⌘ Cmd+ Ctrl+End Meta+> or

Ctrl+End

G Ctrl+search+
Go to previous word Ctrl+ or

Ctrl+/

⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+b or

Ctrl+ or Meta+

b or
ge
Go to next word Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+ Meta+f or

Ctrl+ or Meta+

w or e
Go to previous line or
Ctrl+p
Ctrl+p or k or
Go to next line or
Ctrl+n
Ctrl+n or j or
Go to previous line break (paragraph) Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+
(kword or GNOME)
Meta+( or Control+ (
Go to next line break Ctrl+ ⌥ Opt+ Ctrl+
(kword or GNOME)
Meta+} or
Control+
)
Move the cursor down the length of the viewport Page Down ⌥ Opt+ or

⌥ Opt+Fn+

Page Down Ctrl+v or

Page Down

Ctrl+f or

Page Down

Move the cursor up the length of the viewport Page Up ⌥ Opt+ or

⌥ Opt+Fn+

Page Up Meta+v or

Page Up

Ctrl+b or

Page Up

Find Ctrl+F ⌘ Cmd+F

⌘ Cmd+E (Search with current selection)

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)

Ctrl+s / Ctrl+F
Go to next search result F3 ⌘ Cmd+G Ctrl+G (GNOME) or

F3 (KDE)[10]

Ctrl+s n
Go to previous search result ⇧ Shift+F3 ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+G ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+G (GNOME) or

⇧ Shift+F3 (KDE)[10]

Ctrl+r N
Search and replace Ctrl+H ⌘ Cmd+F Ctrl+H (GNOME) or

Ctrl+R (KDE)

Meta+% %s/fosh/fish/gc[notes 6]
Search with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+s All searches use regular expressions.
Search and replace with a regular expression Ctrl+Meta+%
Action Windows WordPad macOS[notes 1] KDE / GNOME[11] Emacs Vim
Bold Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+B Ctrl+B Meta+o, then b
Underline Ctrl+U ⌘ Cmd+U Ctrl+U Meta+o, then u
Italic Ctrl+I ⌘ Cmd+I Ctrl+I Meta+o, then i
Uppercase / Lowercase Ctrl+⇧ Shift+A ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+C ⇧ Shift+F3 Meta+u for upper,

Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.

gU for upper, gu for lower, ~ to toggle.
Superscript Ctrl+⇧ Shift+= Ctrl+⌘ Cmd++ (some applications only) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+P[12]
Subscript Ctrl+= Ctrl+⌘ Cmd+- (some applications only) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+B[12]
Selected text larger/smaller Ctrl+⇧ Shift+>, Ctrl+⇧ Shift+<

or Ctrl+[, Ctrl/core+]

⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+>
⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+<
Selected text Bullets or Numbered Items Ctrl+⇧ Shift+L
Insert Linebreak Ctrl+↵ Enter ⌥ Opt+↵ Enter[notes 5] Ctrl+↵ Enter
Action Windows macOS KDE / GNOME Chrome OS
Go to Address Bar Alt+D or Alt+C or F6
depending on language
⌘ Cmd+L or ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+G Ctrl+L or Alt+D or F6 Ctrl+L or Alt+D
Go to the previous location in history Alt+ or ← Backspace ⌘ Cmd+[ or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the next location in history Alt+ or ⇧ Shift+← Backspace (web browser only) ⌘ Cmd+] or ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchy Alt+ (Vista, 7 or 8 only) or ← Backspace (Windows Explorer) ⌘ Cmd+ Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or application Alt+Home ⌘ Cmd+Home Ctrl+Home (KDE) /

Alt+Home (GNOME)

Action Windows macOS KDE / GNOME Emacs-w3m Vimperator Chrome OS
Bookmarks menu Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+B

(Firefox)

Alt+B v :bmarks
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com) ↵ Enter ⌘ Cmd+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Firefox) or

Ctrl+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Chrome)

Ctrl+↵ Enter Ctrl+↵ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter ⇧ Shift+⌘ Cmd+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Firefox) Ctrl+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter[notes 5] (Firefox) ⇧ Shift+↵ Enter
Add bookmark for current page Ctrl+D ⌘ Cmd+D Ctrl+B /

Ctrl+D

a :bmark Ctrl+D
Add bookmark for current link Meta+a
Manage bookmarks Ctrl+B ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+B (Firefox)

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R /

Ctrl+B

Focus and select Web search bar Ctrl+E ⌘ Cmd+E (Opera) or

⌘ Cmd+K (Firefox) or ⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+F (Safari)

Ctrl+k t (open in a new tab) or
T (open in current tab)
Ctrl+E or Ctrl+K
Focus and select address bar Ctrl+L or

F6 or Alt+D

⌘ Cmd+L Ctrl+L or

Alt+D or F6

g O to alter URL,
use y to copy it.
Ctrl+L or Alt+D
Refresh a webpage F5 or

Ctrl+R

⌘ Cmd+R F5 or

Ctrl+R

R r or Ctrl+R
Refresh a webpage ignoring cache Ctrl+F5 or

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R

⌥ Opt+⌘ Cmd+E then ⌘ Cmd+R Ctrl+⇧ Shift+F5 or Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R R Ctrl+⇧ Shift+R
Open a new window Ctrl+N ⌘ Cmd+N
(Chrome)
Ctrl+N :winopen Ctrl+N
Zoom Options
(zoom in /
zoom out /
zoom 100%)
Ctrl++ /

Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0

⌘ Cmd++ /

⌘ Cmd+- / ⌘ Cmd+0

Ctrl++ /

Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0

zi / zo / zz (text only)

or zI / zO / zZ (text and images)

Action Windows macOS KDE / GNOME Emacs-w3m Vimperator Chrome OS
New tab Ctrl+T ⌘ Cmd+T Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N or

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T or Ctrl+T

Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+t t Ctrl+T
Close tab Ctrl+W ⌘ Cmd+W Ctrl+W Mozilla Firefox[13] & Opera[14] & Chrome[15] & Arora[16] & Epiphany[17] & Midori

Ctrl+F4 Mozilla Firefox[13] & Opera[14] & Chrome[15] & Arora[16]

d Ctrl+W
Close all tabs but the current one ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+T (Safari) Ctrl+c, then Meta+w
Go to next tab Ctrl+Tab ↹ Ctrl+Tab ↹ or

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+ (Safari)

Ctrl+PageDown or

Ctrl+Tab ↹ or Ctrl+.

Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+n gt Ctrl+Tab ↹
Go to previous tab Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Tab ↹ or

⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+ (Safari)

Ctrl+PageUp or

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹
or
Ctrl+,

Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+p gT Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹
Go to tab-n Ctrl+n
(Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer)
⌘ Cmd+n (Chrome) Alt+n (Chrome, Firefox) or

Ctrl+n (Chrome)

First tab: g0

Last tab: g$

Ctrl+b
Open a previously closed tab Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+T
(Firefox, Opera, Chrome)
Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T

(Firefox, Opera, Chrome)[15][18][19]

Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T (Firefox)[18] u Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T
Open a previously closed window Ctrl+⇧ Shift+N (Firefox)[18] Ctrl+⇧ Shift+T
Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE GNOME Emacs Chrome OS
Close the current internet tab Ctrl+W ⌘ Cmd+F11 Ctrl+W
Force window mode (Application requires functionality for set action) Alt+↵ Enter ⌥ Opt+Alt+↵ Enter[notes 5] or ⌥ Option+Alt+F or ⌘ Cmd+F or ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Option+F
Pop up window menu Alt+Space Alt+F3 Alt+Space Meta+`, then b
Close the focused window Alt+F4 or Alt+Space then C[notes 7] ⌘ Cmd+W Alt+F4 Alt+F4 Ctrl+x, then k Ctrl+W
Close all windows of current application ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Opt+W Ctrl+⇧ Shift+W
Restore the focused window to its previous size Alt+Space then R[notes 7] Alt+F3 then X Alt+F5 Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused window Alt+Space then M[notes 7] then Arrow Keys and ↵ Enter (to save new location) Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F3 then M then Arrow Keys

Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys

Resize the focused window Alt+Space then S[notes 7] then Arrow Keys and ↵ Enter (to save new size) Alt+F3 then S then Arrow Keys Alt+F8 then Arrow Keys Ctrl+x, then ^ vertically
Keep window always on top Ctrl+Alt+Esc (toggles on/off)
Hide the focused window ⌘ Cmd+H Meta+x, then bury-buffer, then ↵ Enter
Hide all except the focused window ⌘ Cmd+⌥ Option+H
Minimize the focused window Alt+Esc
Minimize the focused window Alt+Space then N[notes 7] or ⊞ Win+ (Windows Vista Home Premium, Windows >=7) ⌘ Cmd+M Alt+F3 then N Alt+F9 Meta+x, then bury-buffer, then ↵ Enter Alt+-
Maximize the focused window Alt+Space then X[notes 7] or ⊞ Win+ (Windows 7, 8, 10) ⌘ Cmd+L Alt+F3 then X Alt+F10 Ctrl+x, then 1 Alt++
Maximize horizontally Available, but no default Available, but no default
Maximize vertically ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Available ('Zoom'), but no default Available, but no default Available, but no default
Minimize all ⊞ Win+M or ⊞ Win+D ⌘ Cmd+Alt+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows ⊞ Win+Home (Windows 7, 8.1, 10) Available, but no default
Undo minimize all ⇧ Shift+⊞ Win+M Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal size F11 or ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+↵ Enter (UWP apps only) ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+F F11 F11 Fullscreen
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbar Depends on application, system default: ⌘ Cmd+Ctrl+F Ctrl+⇧ Shift+F Ctrl+F11
Rollup/down window Available, but no default Alt+F12
Show all open windows ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ F3 or

F9 or Fn+F9 or Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[20][21]

⊞ Win works per desktop on Gnome 3+ Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all windows of current application ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ Ctrl+F3 or

F10 or Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[20][21]

Ctrl+` Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspaces ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ (only Windows 10) F8 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[20][21]

⊞ Win then mouse over the desktop bar on the right edge of the screen
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace ⊞ Win+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+⇧ Shift+ / / /
Move window between multiple monitors ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8)
Move window to workspace n Available, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace list Available, but no default
Go to workspace n Ctrl+n Ctrl+Fn
Go to left/right/up/down workspace [notes 8] Ctrl+ /

Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 to 10.6), Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.7 and later)

Available, but no default Ctrl+Alt+ /

/ /

Quit application of current window Alt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[notes 9] ⌘ Cmd+Q[notes 10] Ctrl+Alt+Esc q Ctrl+⇧ Shift+W
Close dialog Esc (Laptop)
⊞ Win++F4 (Desktop)
Esc Ctrl+⇧ Shift+W
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar ⊞ Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1) Alt+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Shelf
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch ⊞ Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista, 7 and 8.1) ⌘ Cmd+A+⇧ Shift Alt+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Shelf
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened) ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1) Alt+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Shelf
Focus the first taskbar entry; pressing again will cycle through them ⊞ Win+T, then back and forth; hold ⇧ Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Peek at the desktop ⊞ Win+Space (Windows 7 only)
Fn+⊞ Win (Windows 8 and later)
⌘ Cmd+F3 or

F11 or Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[20][21]

Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets ⊞ Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or ⊞ Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.) ⊞ Win+P (Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10) Ctrl+Fullscreen
Action Windows macOS[notes 1] KDE GNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous control Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹[notes 2] Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹

Ctrl+Tab ↹ / ⇧ Shift+Ctrl+Tab ↹

Pop up tooltip for currently focused control ⇧ Shift+F1 Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control ⇧ Shift+F1 ⌘ Cmd+? ⇧ Shift+F1 ⇧ Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous pane Ctrl+F6 / Alt+F6 ⌘ Cmd+` F6 / ⇧ Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned window F8
Give focus to window's menu bar F10 or Alt ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+/, then type command name, or
Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards)[notes 2]
Alt F10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (aka context menu) ⇧ Shift+F10 or ≣ Menu Varies with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, then Fn+Ctrl+5 or

Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+I (laptop)

≣ Menu ≣ Menu or ⇧ Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle button Space Space Space Space
Activate focused button, menu item etc. ↵ Enter Space (also ↵ Enter[notes 5] for menu items) ↵ Enter ↵ Enter
Expand a drop-down list F4 or