Teleost

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Teleost
Temporal range: Jurassic – Recent
Retroculus (Cichlidae); Hairy Blenny, Labrisomus; Ogcocephalus and Acanthurus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei

Teleosts are the dominant fish of the present day. They arose in the Mesozoic era, and include 20,000 living species. The oldest teleost fossils date back to the late Triassic. They evolved from fish like bowfins in the clade Holostei. During the Mesozoic and Cainozoic they diversified. 96 percent of all known fish species are teleosts.

They are, in order of evolution, vertebrates, jawed fish (Gnathostomata), bony fish (Osteichthyes) and ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii).[1][2][3]

Teleosts have a movable jaw and changes in the jaw muscles. These changes make it possible for them to protrude their jaws outwards from the mouth.[4] This adaptation improves their ability to grab fast-moving prey.[5][6]

Date of origin[change | change source]

The date of origin of the teleosts is a difficult problem. Two kinds of evidence are available. There is evidence from the fossil record, in which the first teleost comes from the late Triassic period.[7][8]

This date is somewhat later than molecular divergence time estimates (molecular clock). A recent paper finds that fossil dates and molecular clock dates are similar to each other.[9] These researchers atate:

"Divergence times estimated from relaxed-molecular clock analyses yield a comprehensive time-scale of actinopterygian diversification that is remarkably close to ages inferred from the fossil record".[9]



Osteichthyes
Actinopterygii 400 mya


part of "Chondrostei" Thus the former "Chondrostei" is paraphyletic (not a clade), and has been broken up by more recent studies.[9][10]


Polypteridae (bichirs) Cuvier-105-Polyptère.jpg


part of "Chondrostei"

Acipenseriformes (sturgeons, paddlefish) Atlantic sturgeon flipped.jpg


Neopterygii 360 mya

Holostei (bowfins, gars) 275 mya Longnose gar flipped.jpg



Teleostei 210 mya Cyprinus carpio3.jpg






Sarcopterygii

Actinistia (Coelacanths) Coelacanth flipped.png




Dipnoi (Lungfish) Barramunda coloured.jpg



Tetrapods

Amphibians Deutschlands Amphibien und Reptilien (Salamandra salamdra).jpg


Amniota

Mammals Phylogenetic tree of marsupials derived from retroposon data (Paucituberculata).png



Sauropsids (reptiles, birds) Description des reptiles nouveaux, ou, Imparfaitement connus de la collection du Muséum d'histoire naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les caractères des reptiles (1852) (Crocodylus moreletii).jpg







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Evolution of ray-finned fish

Teleost superorders[change | change source]

Teleostei

References[change | change source]

  1. R. Froese and D. Pauly (eds) (2006). "FishBase". http://www.fishbase.org.
  2. Nelson, Joseph S. 2006. Fishes of the world. Wiley, N.Y. ISBN 0471250317.
  3. Helfman G. Collette B. & Facey D. 1997. The diversity of fishes. Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 0-86542-256-7
  4. Ben Waggoner (1995-07-17). "Telostei". Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/actinopterygii/teleostei.html. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
  5. Video of a slingjaw wrasse catching prey by protruding its jaw
  6. Video of a red bay snook catching prey by suction feeding
  7. Kemp T.S. 1999. Fossils and evolution. Oxford University Press. p122 ISBN 0198504241
  8. Palmer D. (ed) 1999. The Marshall illustrated encyclopedia of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals. London: Marshall Editions. p38 ISBN 1-84028-152-9
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Near, Thomas J. et al 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America). pp. 13698–13703. [1]
  10. Betancur-R, Ricardo (2013). "The Tree of Life and a new classification of bony fishes". PLOS Currents Tree of Life. doi:10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288. http://currents.plos.org/treeoflife/article/the-tree-of-life-and-a-new-classification-of-bony-fishes/pdf.