Template:Syrian Civil War infobox

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Syrian Civil War
Part of the Arab Spring, the Arab Winter, the Cold War II, and the spillover of the Iraq conflict
Syrian Civil War map.svg
Military situation in April 2019:
     Syrian Arab Republic      Syrian opposition & Turkish occupation      Rojava      Tahrir al-Sham[24]      ISIL
(Full list of combatants, Detailed map, Live interactive map)
Date15 March 2011 (2011-03-15) – present (8 years, 4 months, 3 weeks and 1 day)
Location
Syria (with spillovers in neighboring countries)
Status Ongoing
Territorial
changes
As of 15 March 2019: the Syrian Armed Forces held 60.2% of Syrian territories; SDF 28.9%; rebel groups (incl. HTS) & Turkey 8.7%; ISIL 2.2%[25]
Main belligerents
InfoboxHez.PNG Hezbollah
 Iran
 Russia (2015–present)

 Turkey[b] (2016–present)


Salvation Government (Tahrir al-Sham)[d][e]

Flag of Rojava.svg Rojava (SDF) (2012–present)

Commanders and leaders



Units involved
See order See order See order See order
Strength

Syrian Armed Forces: 180,000[67]
General Security Directorate: 8,000[68]
National Defense Force: 80,000[69]
Ba'ath Brigades: 7,000 Hezbollah: 6,000–8,000[70]
Liwa Al-Quds: 4,000–8,000
Russia: 4,000 troops[71] & 1,000 contractors[72]
Iran: 3,000–5,000[70][73]

Other allied groups: 20,000+

Free Syrian Army: 20,000–32,000[74] (2013)
Islamic Front: 40,000–70,000[75][76] (2014)
Other groups: 12,500[77] (2015)
Turkish Armed Forces: 4,000–8,000[78][79]


Ahrar al-Sham: 18,000–20,000+[80][81] (March 2017)


Tahrir al-Sham: 31,000[82]
15,000–20,000 (per U.S., late 2016)[83]

SDF: 60,000–75,000 (2017 est.)[84]

  • YPG & YPJ: 20,000–30,000 (2017 est.)[85]
  • Syriac Military Council (MFS): 1,000 (2017 est.)[86]
  • Al-Sanadid Forces: 2,000–4,000 (2017 est.)[86]
  • SDF Military Councils: 10,000+[87][88][89]
Casualties and losses

Syrian Arab Republic:
65,187–100,187 soldiers killed[25][90]
50,484–64,484 militiamen killed[25][90]
4,700 soldiers/militiamen & 2,000 supporters captured[25]
InfoboxHez.PNG Hezbollah:
1,677–2,000 killed[25][91]
Russia Russia:
116 soldiers[92] & 186–280 PMCs killed[93]

Other non-Syrian fighters:
8,109 killed[25] (2,300–3,500+ IRGC-led)[94][95]

Syrian opposition 132,824–173,824 killed[f][25][90]


Turkey Turkey:
182 killed (2016–19 incursions)[96][97][98]
28,532+ killed (per SOHR)[99]
20,711+ killed (per YPG & SAA)[100][101]

Flag of Syrian Democratic Forces.svg SDF:
11,600–12,586+ killed[102][103]


CJTF–OIR:
11 killed[104]

112,623[25]–117,377[105] civilian deaths documented by opposition
100 other foreign soldiers killed (Lebanon 60, Turkey 17 (pre-'16), Iraq 16, Jordan 7)


Total killed: 371,222–570,000 (per SOHR)[25]


Estimated ≥7,600,000 internally displaced & ≥5,116,097 refugees (July 2015/2017)[106]

a Since early 2013, the FSA has been decentralized with its name being arbitrarily used by various rebels.
b Turkey provided arms support to rebels since 2011 & since Aug. 2016 fought alongside the TFSA in the Aleppo governorate vs. the SDF, ISIL & Syrian gov.
c Sep.–Nov. 2016: U.S. fought with the TFSA in Aleppo governorate solely against ISIL.[107][108] In 2017–18, the U.S. purposely attacked the Syrian gov. 10 times, while in Sep. 2016 it accidentally hit a Syrian base, killing ≥100 SAA soldiers. Syria maintains this was intentional.[109]
d Predecessors of HTS (al-Nusra Front) & ISIL (ISI) were allied al-Qaeda branches until April 2013. Al-Nusra Front rejected an ISI-proposed merger into ISIL & al-Qaeda cut all affiliation with ISIL in Feb. 2014.
e Ahrir al-Sham's predecessor, Syrian Liberation Front, and Tahrir al-Sham's predecessor, al-Nusra Front, were allied under the Army of Conquest from March 2015 to January 2017.
f Number includes Kurdish & ISIL fighters, whose deaths are also listed in their separate columns.[110][25]

g Iraq's involvement in Syria is limited to airstrikes against ISIL & are coordinated with the Syrian gov.[1]

References[change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 References:
  2. "Iraq conducts first airstrikes against ISIS in Syria". CNN. 24 February 2017.
  3. "Lukashenka supplies weapons to Assad". Charter 97.
  4. Беларусь и Сирия: от дипломатии до военного сотрудничества
  5. Беларусь выходит в лидеры на рынке средств радиоэлектронной борьбы — Naviny.by, 4 мая 2018
  6. "Trump ends CIA arms support for anti-Assad Syria rebels: U.S. officials". Reuters. 19 July 2017.
  7. "Victory for Assad looks increasingly likely as world loses interest in Syria". The Guardian. 31 August 2017. Returning from a summit in the Saudi capital last week, opposition leaders say they were told directly by the foreign minister, Adel al-Jubeir, that Riyadh was disengaging.
  8. "Britain withdraws last of troops training Syrian rebels as world powers distance themselves from opposition". Daily Telegraph. 2 September 2017.
  9. "Hollande confirms French delivery of arms to Syrian rebels". AFP. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  10. Watson, Ivan; Tuysuz, Gul (29 October 2014). "Meet America's newest allies: Syria's Kurdish minority". CNN. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  11. A. Jaunger (30 July 2017). "US increases military support to Kurdish-led forces in Syria". ARA News. Retrieved 1 January 2018 – via Inside Syria Media Center.
  12. Jamie Dettmer (9 June 2016). "France Deploys Special Forces in Syria as IS Loses Ground". VOA. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  13. "U.S.-backed fighters poised to cut key ISIS supply line". CBS News. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Irish, John (13 November 2013). "Syrian Kurdish leader claims military gains against Islamists". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2017. Muslim said the PYD had received aid, money and weapons from the Iraq-based Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan...
  15. Ranj Alaaldin (16 December 2014). "A Dangerous Rivalry for the Kurds". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2017. Once again, the P.U.K. saw a chance to seize the initiative, by suggesting that it, rather than the Kurdistan regional government or the K.D.P., was providing weapons and supplies to the Syrian Kurdish fighters, who belong to a party that has historically been at odds with the K.D.P.
  16. Jack Murphy (23 March 2017). "Did Kurdistan's Counter-Terrorist Group assault the Tabqa Dam in Syria?". SOFREP. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  17. Alexander Whitcomb (30 October 2014). "Peshmerga advance team in Kobane". Rudaw Media Network. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  18. "France Says Its Airstrikes Hit an ISIS Camp in Syria". The New York Times. 28 September 2015.
  19. "COALITION: SPECIAL OPS FORCES TRAIN, EQUIP TWO OPPOSITION GROUPS IN SOUTHERN SYRIA". NRT News. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  20. "The UAE has it in for the Muslim Brotherhood". Al-Araby Al-Jadeed. 22 February 2017. Along with their American counterparts, Emirati special forces are said to be training elements of the opposition. They constitute a kind of Arab guarantee among the Syrian Democratic Forces – an umbrella group dominated by the Kurds of the PYD, on whom the US are relying to fight IS on the ground.
  21. "Saudi Arabia, UAE send troops to support Kurds in Syria". Middle East Monitor. 22 November 2018.
  22. "Australia to end air strikes in Iraq and Syria, bring Super Hornets home". Reuters. 21 December 2017.
  23. Barton, Rosemary (26 November 2015). "Justin Trudeau to pull fighter jets, keep other military planes in ISIS fight". CBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  24. (formerly al-Nusra Front)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 25.9 "More than 570 thousand people were killed on the Syrian territory within 8 years of revolution demanding freedom, democracy, justice, and equality". 15 March 2019.
  26. "Leading Syrian regime figures killed in Damascus bomb attack". The Guardian. July 2012.
  27. "Syria defence minister killed in Damascus bomb". The Daily Telegraph. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  28. "Syria Remains Silent on Intelligence Official's Death". The New York Times. 24 April 2015.
  29. (Head of National Defence Forces)"Assad cousin killed in Syria's Latakia". Al Jazeera. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  30. "Iranian comdr. Brigadier General Hossein Hamedani killed by Isis while advising Syrian regime". The Independent. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  31. "Iranian General Is Killed in Syria". The Wall Street Journal. 13 February 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  32. "Obituary: Hezbollah military commander Mustafa Badreddine". BBC. 14 May 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  33. "Al-Nusra Front claims responsibility for Hezbollah fighters' death". Middle East Monitor. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  34. "Israeli strike on Syrian Golan Heights 'kills son of top military commander and five other fighters from Lebanese Shiite militant group'". Daily Mail. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  35. "Analysis: Shiite Afghan casualties of the war in Syria". FDD's Long War Journal. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  36. "Update 1-Moscow blames 'two-faced U.S. policy' for Russian general's Syria death -RIA". Reuter. 25 September 2017.
  37. "Body of senior Russian officer killed in Syria delivered to Moscow". TASS. 29 April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  38. "Turkish Special Forces: From stopping a coup to the frontline of the ISIL fight". Hürriyet Daily News. 24 August 2016.
  39. sitesi, milliyet.com.tr Türkiye'nin lider haber. "Son dakika: Afrin harekatını Korgeneral İsmail Metin Temel yönetecek!". Milliyet. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  40. "Top Syrian rebel commander dies from wounds". Reuters. 17 November 2013.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Leading Syrian rebel groups form new Islamic Front". BBC. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  42. "Suicide bombing kills head of Syrian rebel group". The Daily Star.
  43. "Al Qaeda's chief representative in Syria killed in suicide attack". FDD's Long War Journal. 23 February 2014.
  44. "Russian raids kill prominent Syrian rebel commander". Al Jazeera. 25 December 2015.
  45. Nic Robertson & Paul Cruickshank (5 March 2015). "Source: Syrian warplanes kill leaders of al-Nusra". CNN.
  46. "Senior Nusra Front commander killed in Syria air strike". Al Jazeera. 6 March 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  47. "Nusra Front spokesman killed by air strike in Syria". Al Jazeera. 4 April 2016.
  48. "Syria's Qaeda spokesman, 20 jihadists dead in strikes: monitor". AFP. 3 April 2016 – via Yahoo!.
  49. "Air strike kills top commander of former Nusra group in Syria". Reuters. 9 September 2016.
  50. "Leader of Qaeda Cell in Syria, Muhsin al-Fadhli, Is Killed in Airstrike, U.S. Says". The New York Times. 2 July 2015.
  51. "Isis leader incapacitated with suspected spinal injuries after air strike". The Guardian. 1 May 2015.
  52. "ISIS confirms death of senior leader in Syria". FDD's Long War Journal. February 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  53. Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  54. Schmidt, Michael S.; Mazzetti, Mark (25 March 2016). "A Top ISIS Leader Is Killed in an Airstrike, the Pentagon Says". The New York Times.
  55. Starr, Barbara (14 March 2016). "U.S. assesses ISIS operative Omar al-Shishani is dead". CNN.
  56. Ryan, Missy (3 July 2015). "U.S. drone strike kills a senior Islamic State militant in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  57. Starr, Barbara; Conlon, Kevin (19 May 2015). "U.S. names ISIS commander killed in raid". CNN. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  58. Starr, Barbara; Acosta, Jim (22 August 2015). "U.S.: ISIS No.2 killed in US drone strike in Iraq". CNN.
  59. Sherlock, Ruth (9 July 2014). "Inside the leadership of Islamic State: how the new 'caliphate' is run". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  60. "Isis: US-trained Tajik special forces chief Gulmurod Khalimov becomes Isis war minister". International Business Times. 6 September 2016 – via Yahoo News.
  61. "Top ISIL leaders killed in southern Syria". The National. 9 June 2017.
  62. Sands, Phil; Maayeh, Suha web (17 November 2015), "Death of 'ISIL commander' in southern Syria a blow to the group", The National
  63. "The Syrian Democratic Council concludes its work by issuing the final communiqué". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  64. "New Operation Inherent Resolve commander continues fight against ISIL". Army Worldwide News. 22 August 2016.
  65. "Top Syrian Kurdish commander Abu Layla killed by Isis sniper fire". The Independent. 5 June 2016.
  66. Hisham Arafat (31 August 2017). "Senior SDF commander lost his life in Raqqa fighting IS". Kurdistan 24.
  67. "Syria military strength". Global Fire Power. 17 October 2015.
  68. "Syria's diminished security forces". Agence France-Presse. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  69. ISIS’ Iraq offensive could trigger Hezbollah to fill gap left in Syria The Daily Star, 16 June 2014
  70. 70.0 70.1 "Iran 'Foreign Legion' Leads Battle in Syria's North". The Wall Street Journal. 17 February 2016.
  71. "Russia's Syria force has reportedly grown to 4,000 people". Business Insider.
  72. Grove, Thomas (18 December 2015). "Up to Nine Russian Contractors Die in Syria, Experts Say". Wall Street Journal.
  73. "State-of-the-art technology is giving Assad's army the edge in Syria". 26 February 2016.
  74. "Here's The Extremist-To-Moderate Spectrum Of The 100,000 Syrian Rebels". Business Insider.
  75. "Front to Back". Foreign Policy.
  76. Cockburn, Patrick (11 December 2013). "West suspends aid for Islamist rebels in Syria, underlining their disillusionment with those forces opposed to President Bashar al-Assad". The Independent.
  77. Who are these 70,000 Syrian fighters David Cameron is relying on?. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  78. Şafak, Yeni (5 January 2017). "8 bin asker emir bekliyor". Yeni Şafak.
  79. [1][dead link]
  80. "Is Syria's Idlib being groomed as Islamist killing ground?". Asia Times.
  81. "Al Qaeda Is Starting to Swallow the Syrian Opposition". Foreign Policy. 15 March 2017.
  82. Rida, Nazeer (30 January 2017). "Syria: Surfacing of 'Hai'at Tahrir al-Sham' Threatens Truce". Asharq Al-Awsat.
  83. "Isis ranks dwindle to 15,000 amid 'retreat on all fronts', claims Pentagon". The Guardian. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  84. Rashid (2018), p. 7.
  85. Rashid (2018), p. 16.
  86. 86.0 86.1 Rashid (2018), p. 53.
  87. "US coalition spokesman: Arabs are leading Manbij campaign, not Kurds". ARA News. 4 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  88. "US-backed fighters close in on IS Syria bastion". 6 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  89. Rodi Said (25 August 2017). "U.S.-backed forces to attack Syria's Deir al-Zor soon: SDF official". Reuters.
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 "Tantalizing promises of Bashar al- Assad kill more than 11000 fighters of his forces during 5 months". SOHR. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  91. "On Balance, Hezbollah Has Benefited from the Syrian Conflict". The Soufan Group. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  92. Syria Daily: Russia Acknowledges Deaths of 3 Troops
  93. 150–201 killed (2015-17),[2][3][4] 20–64 killed (Battle of Khasham, Feb. 2018),[5][6] 15 killed (May 2018-April 2019),[7][8][9][10][11] total of 186–280 reported dead
  94. IRGC Strategist Hassan Abbasi Praises Iranian Parents Who Handed Over Their Oppositionist Children For Execution: Educating People To This Level Is The Pinnacle Of The Islamic Republic's Achievement; Adds: 2,300 Iranians Have Been Killed In Syria War
  95. الشامية, محرر الدرر (30 August 2017). "عميد إيراني يكشف عن إحصائية بأعداد قتلى بلاده في سوريا". الدرر الشامية. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  96. "El Bab'da 2 asker şehit oldu".
  97. "The Turkish forces carry out violent and heavy shelling on the areas where the Kurdish forces are deployed north of Aleppo in retaliation for the killing of a Turkish soldier by a guided missile".
  98. "Turkish soldier killed in attack in Syria's Idlib province".
    Turkish soldier killed in northern Latakia after unknown group opens fire near border crossing
  99. 8,000 killed in fighting (29 June 2014–28 June 2015),[12] 417 killed in Palmyra offensive (March 2016),[13] 47 killed in fighting with rebels (27–29 May 2016),[14] 1,026 killed in Manbij offensive,[15] 283 killed in Palmyra offensive (2017),[16] 1,371 killed in Battle of Raqqa (2017),[17] 1,394 killed in Central Syria campaign (2017),[18][19][20][21][22][23] 538 executed (29 June 2014–23 September 2017),[24] 233 killed Southern Damascus offensive (April–May 2018),[25] 31 killed As-Suwayda offensive (June 2018) [26] قتال متواصل بعنف مع تنظيم “الدولة الإسلامية” على بعد نحو 50 كيلومتراً من منطقة تواجد التحالف الدولي في التنف [27] 310 killed 2018 Southern Syria offensive,[28] 63 killed 2018 As-Suwayda attacks [29] 428 killed As-Suwayda offensive (August–November 2018), [30] 9,158 killed in U.S. air-strikes (22 September 2014– March 2019),[31] 5,233 killed in Russian air-strikes (30 September 2015– March 2019),[32] total of 28,532 reported killed
  100. "YPG releases balance-sheet of 2014: Nearly 5,000 ISIS members killed".
    "Balance of the War Against Hostile Groups in Rojava, Northern Syria: Year 2015".
    YPG releases the 2016 balance sheet of war
  101. "Syrian Army Kills Nearly 5,000 IS Militants in Three Months: Source". sputniknews.com. 25 December 2014.
    "The army takes full control of Palmyra city, hundreds of ISIS terrorists killed – Syrian Arab News Agency". 27 March 2016.
  102. Wladimir van Wilgenburg. "SDF says over 11,000 of its forces killed in fight against the Islamic State". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  103. "Afrin administration: The war has moved to another stage". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
    Results of battles and resistance of YPG throughout 2018
    "On the eve of Nowruz festivals…Afrin witnesses arrests against its residents by the factions of "Olive Branch" on charge of celebrating and setting fire in the festival's anniversary".
  104. "Pilot killed as U.S. F-16 crashes in Jordan".
    "Jordan pilot murder: Islamic State deploys asymmetry of fear". BBC News. 4 February 2015.
    "US service member killed in Syria identified as 22-year-old from Georgia". ABC News. 27 May 2017.
    "US identifies American service member killed by IED in Syria". ABC News. 27 May 2017.
    "French soldier killed in Iraq-Syria military zone, Élysée Palace says". France24. 27 May 2017.
    "4 Americans among those killed in Syria attack claimed by ISIS". CNN. 27 May 2017.
    "Mystery surrounds the killing of a US soldier in the countryside of Ayn al-Arab (Kobani) amid accusations against Turkey of targeting him". Syrian Observatory of Human Rights. 2 May 2019.
  105. "Violations Documenting Center". Violations Documenting Center. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  106. (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee Response".
  107. Thomas Gibbons-Neff (16 September 2016). "U.S. Special Operations forces begin new role alongside Turkish troops in Syria". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  108. Andrew Tilghman (16 November 2016). "U.S. halts military support for Turkey's fight in key Islamic State town". Military Times. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  109. Fadel, Leith (27 September 2016). "US Coalition knew they were bombing the Syrian Army in Deir Ezzor".
  110. "More than 215,000 killed in Syria since 2011". 3news.co.nz.
Template documentation[view] [edit] [history] [purge]

Usage[change source]

Bibliography[change source]