The United States in the 19th century
The United States was a country in the 19th century. During this time it grew from 17 states to 45 states. The year was from 1801 till 1900 in the Gregorian calendar. States like Utah, Illinois and Mississippi were added to the United States. There were 22 presidents. The Industrial Revolution was still going on. The first skyscraper was built and the White House became the home of the President of the United States. There was a war with Great Britain in 1812. In 1866 Alfred Nobel invented dynamite. The sport of Basketball was invented. In 1829, William Austin Burt patented a machine called the "Typographer" which many consider the first typewriter. The 19th century also saw the Great Chicago Fire. New York City was hit by the Great September Gale of 1815.
Presidents in the United States 19th century[change | change source]
The United States of America had 22 presidents in the 19th Century. Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States. He was the first elected president of the 19th century. The last one was William McKinley. McKinley started the presidency in 1897 and he left his presidency in 1901 which is just after the 19th century. All these presidents in the 19th century lived in the white house.
Thomas Jefferson[change | change source]
Thomas Jefferson was born on the 13th of April in 1743. His parents were Jane Randolph Jefferson and Peter Jefferson. His brothers were Peter and Randolph. His sisters were Jane, Mary, Elizabeth, Marta, Lucy and Anna. He was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. He was president from 1801 till 1809. He died on July 5, 1826 and was buried at Monticello.
Abraham Lincoln[change | change source]
Abraham Lincoln was born on 12 February 1809. This was while Thomas Jefferson was president. He was the second child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Lincoln. He was born in the state of Kentucky. Lincoln married Mary Todd. His children were Robert, Edward, Willie and Tad. Lincoln belonged to the Whig Party and later the Republican Party. He was assassinated while still in office.
Martin van Buren[change | change source]
Martin van Buren was born on December 5, 1782. He was born in Kinderhook, New York, US. His father was Abraham van Buren and his mother was Maria Hoes van Alen van Buren. His ancestor Cornelis van Buren had come to the United States in 1631 from the small city of Buren. Martin is the only president who has spoken English as a second language. His political party was called the Free Soil Party. Martin was president from 1837 till 1841. He died on July 24, 1862.
James Monroe[change | change source]
James Monroe was born on April 28,1758 in Virginia. His parents were Spence Monroe and Elizabeth. James Monroe married Elizabeth Kortright. Their children were Eliza, James and Maria. He died on July 4, 1831 in New York City. He was then 73 years old.
The Industrial Revolution[change | change source]
The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy took more than a century in the United States, they lagged far behind their mother country, England. The Industrial Revolution started around 1750 in England, and fifty years later in the United States. This was because there was a lot of land to work on, but there was too less labour to do that. The industrial machines were expensive.
Samuel Slater[change | change source]
The start of the Industrial Revolution in America is caused by Samuel Slater, who built the first industrial mill in the United States around 1790. His cotton mill looked a lot like the British mill. But through this mill, the speed with which cotton thread could be spun into yarn was greatly increased.
Another cause of the rapidly changing economy were the new organizational strategies to increase the speed to make the products. This reformation was especially important for the shoe and boot industry. Were first the most products were made by hand.
But the most important change was the “Factory System” where products were produced on a large scale and then one specific product, but they needed people to operate the machines. A group of businessman called the Boston Associates recruited thousands farm girls from New England to operate the machines in the new factories.
Lowell[change | change source]
One of the most known mill towns was Lowell, Massachusetts, which opened in 1823. The use of a female factory workers had advantages to both employer and employee. The Boston Associates preferred the young girls because they paid young girls less than men. These female factory workers were often called: Lowell Girls, named to the place Lowell.
References[change | change source]
- Elizabeth Jewell, U.S. Presidents Factbook (New York: Random House Reference, 2005), pp. 1746–1753
- Robin Santos Doak, William McKinley (Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2004), p. 6
- "Jefferson's Funeral". Monticello.org. Retrieved 29 August 2014.