|Timema genevievae on the leaves of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum).|
21, and see text
|Geographical distribution of Timema species in North America (Law & Crespi, 2002). T. morongense is found west of T. chumash but the extent of its full range is unknown.|
Compared to other stick insects (order Phasmatodea), the genus Timema is basal. It is the earliest living branch to diverge from the phylogenetic tree of the Phasmatodea. To emphasize this, all other stick insects are sometimes described as "Euphasmatodea."
Timema sticks are night-feeders: they spend daytime resting on the leaves or bark of the plants they feed on. They are camouflaged. Timema species have colours (green, gray, or brown) and patterns (stripes or dots) which match their background.
References[change | change source]
- Jennifer H. Law & Bernard J. Crespi (2002). "The evolution of geographic parthenogenesis in Timema walking-sticks" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. Blackwell Science Ltd. 11: 1471–1489. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2002.01547.x.
- Brock, P.D. "Species Timema californicum Scudder, 1895". Phasmida Species File Online. Retrieved 19 July 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Hebard, M. (1920). "The genus Timema Scudder, with the description of a new species, (Orthoptera, Phasmidae, Timeminae)" (PDF). Entomological News. 31: 126–132. Retrieved 19 July 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Davies, Ella. Sticks insects survive one million years without sex. BBC Nature News. 
- Sandoval, Cristina P. & Crespi, Bernard J. 2008. Adaptive evolution of cryptic coloration: the shape of host plants and dorsal stripes in Timema walking-sticks. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 1–5. 
- Gullan, P.J.; P.S. Cranston (2010). The insects: an outline of entomology. John Wiley and Sons. p. 367. ISBN 1-4443-3036-5.
... many stick insects look very much like sticks and may even move like a twig in the wind.