Timema

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Timema
Timema sp. - walking stick insect.jpg
Timema genevievae on the leaves of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum).
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Phasmatodea
Family: Timematidae
Genus: Timema
Scudder, 1895
Species

21, and see text

Timema distribution map.jpg
Geographical distribution of Timema species in North America (Law & Crespi, 2002). T. morongense is found west of T. chumash but the extent of its full range is unknown.[1]
Timema poppensis camouflaged on its host, Sequoia sempervirens (redwood)

Timema is a genus of short-bodied, somewhat thicker stick insects. They are native to the far western United States.[1][2][3]

Compared to other stick insects (order Phasmatodea), the genus Timema is basal. It is the earliest living branch to diverge from the phylogenetic tree of the Phasmatodea. To emphasize this, all other stick insects are sometimes described as "Euphasmatodea."

Five of the 21 species of Timema are parthenogenetic, including two species that have done sexual reproduction for a million years. This is the longest known asexual period for any insect.[4]

Timema sticks are night-feeders: they spend daytime resting on the leaves or bark of the plants they feed on. They are camouflaged. Timema species have colours (green, gray, or brown) and patterns (stripes or dots) which match their background.[5][6]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jennifer H. Law & Bernard J. Crespi (2002). "The evolution of geographic parthenogenesis in Timema walking-sticks" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. Blackwell Science Ltd. 11: 1471–1489. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2002.01547.x.
  2. Brock, P.D. "Species Timema californicum Scudder, 1895". Phasmida Species File Online. Retrieved 19 July 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. Hebard, M. (1920). "The genus Timema Scudder, with the description of a new species, (Orthoptera, Phasmidae, Timeminae)" (PDF). Entomological News. 31: 126–132. Retrieved 19 July 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. Davies, Ella. Sticks insects survive one million years without sex. BBC Nature News. [1]
  5. Sandoval, Cristina P. & Crespi, Bernard J. 2008. Adaptive evolution of cryptic coloration: the shape of host plants and dorsal stripes in Timema walking-sticks. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 1–5. [2]
  6. Gullan, P.J.; P.S. Cranston (2010). The insects: an outline of entomology. John Wiley and Sons. p. 367. ISBN 1-4443-3036-5. ... many stick insects look very much like sticks and may even move like a twig in the wind.