Treaty of Berlin (1878)

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Europe after the Congress of Berlin.

The Treaty of Berlin was a part of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878). In it, the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire wrote the Treaty of San Stefano.

Problems[change | change source]

Bulgaria[change | change source]

The most important problem in the treaty was deciding what would happen to the Kingdom of Bulgaria.[1] However, Russia insisted that Bulgaria should not be mentioned in the treaty.[2] The Treaty of San Stefano had created a huge Bulgarian state, which was just what the United Kings and Austria-Hungary did not want since Russia would become too powerful.[3]

Independence[change | change source]

The treaty stated that Romania, Serbia and Montenegro were to become independent. The Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina was to be occupied by Austria-Hungary.

The three newly-independent states soon declared themselves to be kingdoms (Romania in 1881, Serbia in 1882 and Montenegro in 1910). Austria-Hungary officially took over Bosnia in 1908, which caused a major European crisis.

References[change | change source]

  1. Krasner, Stephen D. (1999). Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton University Press. p. 165. ISBN 069100711X.
  2. Krasner, p.165
  3. Crampton, R. J. (2005). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0521850851.