Turkification was the process of turning a culturally, linguistically, or ethnically non-Turkish area into a cultural, linguistic, or Turkish area. Turkification was sometimes voluntary and sometimes forced. Turkey was once the home to many different ethnic groups before the arrival of the Turks. Among these groups were Greeks, Kurds, Armenians, and many more. These groups had been subjected to centuries of cultural assimilation. However, under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, these groups were subjected to a second wave of forced Turkification, this time targeting their languages.
Turkification partially explains why Turkish culture is a mixture of Western, Islamic, and Shamanistic cultures.