Turkish War of Independence
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The Turkish War of Independence (also known as the Turkish War of Liberation) was a military conflict waged by the Turkish National Movement against the Allied Powers and the remnants of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The war lasted from 1919 to 1923 and resulted in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by the victorious Allied Powers. The Treaty of Sèvres, signed in 1920, stripped the Ottoman Empire of its territories and imposed severe restrictions on its sovereignty. In response, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a former Ottoman military commander, led a national movement to resist foreign occupation and defend Turkish independence.
The Turkish National Movement fought a successful campaign against the Allied Powers and their local proxies, including the Armenian, Greek, and French forces. The conflict was marked by several key battles, including the Battle of Sakarya in 1921 and the Battle of Dumlupınar in 1922.
In 1922, the Turkish National Movement launched a major offensive that pushed the Greek forces out of western Anatolia. This victory paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, which recognized the independence of the Republic of Turkey and established its modern borders. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk became the first president of Turkey and oversaw a series of sweeping reforms to modernize the country and transform it into a secular, democratic state.
The Turkish War of Independence is a significant event in Turkish history, as it marked the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of a new era in Turkish history, characterized by secularism, modernization, and a strong sense of national identity.