Turning or technical turning, is a kind of machining.
When we turn, we cut away material such as metal, wood or plastic, with a sharp tool, while the workpiece turns around itself. This allows us to cut little by little around the piece of work, in a smooth way. Then the piece of work will be shaped as symmetrically as possible.
To cut in soft material such as wood; we can keep cutting tools by hand. While to cut in hard material like Iron, we need mechanical toolholders.
As one sees in other image where the cutting tool moves along or across the axis of rotation, mechanically.
The material that is cut away, or what we can call cutting, is similar to chips. Therefore, it can also be called chips. There is a lot one can know about how well the work is done by looking at the chips.