2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

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United Kingdom European Union membership referendum
23 June 2016

Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union?
LocationUnited Kingdom (pop. 65.65m)[1] and Gibraltar (pop. 34,000)[2]
OutcomeThe UK votes to leave the European Union
Results
Results
Votes %
Leave 17,410,742 51.89%
Remain 16,141,241 48.11%
Valid votes 33,551,983 99.92%
Invalid or blank votes 25,359 0.08%
Total votes 33,577,342 100.00%
Registered voters/turnout 46,500,001 72.21%

United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results.svg
Results by voting area
On the map, the darker shades for a colour indicate a larger majority. The results for Northern Ireland are by parliamentary constituency. The electorate of 46.5m represents 70.8% of the population.
'Vote remain' banner in Kirk Deighton, North Yorkshire.

The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum took place on 23 June 2016 in the UK and Gibraltar. It was to decide whether the United Kingdom would stay in the European Union (EU).

The referendum ended with 51.9% of votes in favour of leaving the EU.[3][4][5]

On 24 June, the then Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign.[6] He was replaced on 13 July by Theresa May.

The Remain campaign[change | change source]

Members of the Remain campaign wanted the United Kingdom to stay in the European Union. Political parties that wanted the UK to stay in the EU include the Labour Party,[7][8] the Liberal Democrats [9] and the Scottish National Party.[10] They said that being in the EU gave the UK many advantages in trade.

Prime Minister David Cameron supported staying in the EU, but the Conservative Party was neutral.[11] It was up to each MP to have their own view. Other well-known Conservatives who wanted to remain in the EU include George Osborne, Theresa May and Philip Hammond.

The Leave campaign[change | change source]

Members of the leave campaign, commonly called Brexit, wanted the UK to leave the European Union. Political parties who supported leaving the EU include United Kingdom Independence Party,[12], the Respect Party[13] and many members of the Conservative Party. Those who supported "leave" were especially concerned about the EU's "open border" policies and mass migration.

Some well known members of the Conservative party who wanted to leave the EU included Iain Duncan Smith, Michael Gove and Boris Johnson.

Party policies[change | change source]

The tables list political parties with seats in the House of Commons or the House of Lords, the European Parliament, the Scottish Parliament, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Welsh Assembly, or the Gibraltar Parliament at the time of the referendum.

Great Britain[change | change source]

Position Political parties Ref
Remain Green Party of England and Wales [14]
Labour Party [15][16]
Liberal Democrats [17]
Plaid Cymru – The Party of Wales [18]
Scottish Green Party [19]
Scottish National Party (SNP) [20][21]
Leave
UK Independence Party (UKIP) [22]
Neutral Conservative Party [11]

Northern Ireland[change | change source]

Position Political parties Ref
Remain Alliance Party of Northern Ireland [23][24]
Green Party in Northern Ireland [25]
Sinn Féin [26]
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) [27]
Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) [28]
Leave
Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) [29][30]
People Before Profit Alliance (PBP) [31]
Traditional Unionist Voice (TUV) [32]

Gibraltar[change | change source]

Position Political parties Ref
Remain Gibraltar Social Democrats [33]
Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party [34]
Liberal Party of Gibraltar [34]

Final results[change | change source]

  Leave
  Remain
By local districts
United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016
Choice Votes %
Remain a member of the European Union 16,141,241 48.11
Leave the European Union 17,410,742 51.89
Total votes 33,551,983 100.00

* Total votes only include Valid votes. About 25,359 were invalid or blank. Source: [35]

UK regional results[change | change source]

Region Voter turnout,
of eligible
Votes Proportion of votes
Remain Leave Remain Leave
  East Midlands 74.2% 1,033,036 1,475,479 41.18% 58.82%
  East of England 75.7% 1,448,616 1,880,367 43.52% 56.48%
  London 69.7% 2,263,519 1,513,232 59.93% 40.07%
  North East England 69.3% 562,595 778,103 41.96% 58.04%
  North West England 70% 1,699,020 1,966,925 46.35% 53.65%
  Northern Ireland 62.7% 440,707 349,442 55.78% 44.22%
  Scotland 67.2% 1,661,191 1,018,322 62.00% 38.00%
  South East England 76.8% 2,391,718 2,567,965 48.22% 51.78%
  South West England & Gibraltar 76.7% 1,503,019 1,669,711 47.37% 52.63%
  Wales 71.7% 772,347 854,572 47.47% 52.53%
  West Midlands 72% 1,207,175 1,755,687 40.74% 59.26%
  Yorkshire and the Humber 70.7% 1,158,298 1,580,937 42.29% 57.71%

Reactions[change | change source]

Shortly after the results were announced, David Cameron said that he would resign by October 2016. After a leadership election, Theresa May became Prime Minister on 13 July.

The Scottish government announced on 24 June 2016 that they were planning to hold a second independence referendum.[36] Northern Ireland politician Martin McGuinness also called for an Irish reunification referendum.[37] A movement for London independence even occurred, with an online petition reaching thousands of signatures.[38][39][40]

A "Bregret"/"Regrexit" petition was proposed by William Oliver Healey on 24 May 2016. It was made to support the creation of a second European Union membership referendum. By 25 June, more than two and a half million people signed the petition.[41] Calls for a second referendum was later rejected by the government. [42]

Theresa May officially triggered Article 50 on 29 March 2017[43]. This means that negotiations have started between the UK government and the European Union. These talks are expected to last 2 years and after they have finished the UK will be out of the EU.

References[change | change source]

  1. "United Kingdom population mid-year estimate". Office for National Statistics (ONS). 26 June 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  2. "Population, total – Gibraltar". World Bank. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  3. Erlanger, Steven (23 June 2016). "Britain Votes to Leave E.U.; Cameron Plans to Step Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  4. McCann, Kate; Hughes, Laura (24 June 2016). "EU referendum live: Boris Johnson hails 'glorious opportunity' of Brexit as David Cameron resigns". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  5. Staff writer. "EU Referendum Results". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  6. "Brexit: David Cameron to quit after UK votes to leave EU". BBC New. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  7. Wintour, Patrick (2 June 2015). "Andy Burnham pushes Labour to set up separate pro-European Union campaign | Politics". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  8. Patrick Wintour. "Alan Johnson to head Labour Yes campaign for EU referendum | Politics". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  9. Staff writer (9 May 2014). "Nick Clegg: Pro-Europeans are the real reformers now". libdems.org.uk. Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  10. Staff writer (2 June 2015). "Nicola Sturgeon warns of EU exit 'backlash'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Hope, Christopher (21 September 2015). "Conservative Party to stay neutral during EU referendum". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 February 2016. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Tory position Sep 2015" defined multiple times with different content
  12. UKIP. "Home page". ukip.org. UK Independence Party.
  13. R T (22 February 2016). "Respect to campaign to leave the EU". respectparty.org. Respect Party.
  14. "Policy: Europe". greenparty.org.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  15. Wintour, Patrick (2 June 2015). "Andy Burnham pushes Labour to set up separate pro-European Union campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  16. Patrick Wintour. "Alan Johnson to head Labour Yes campaign for EU referendum". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  17. "Nick Clegg: Pro-Europeans are the real reformers now". libdems.org.uk. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  18. Staff. "Positions". partyof.wales. Plaid Cymru. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  19. Greer, Ross (10 October 2015). "EU Referendum: Greens to Make Progressive Case for Membership". Scottish Green Party. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  20. Staff (2 June 2015). "Nicola Sturgeon warns of EU exit 'backlash'". BBC News. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  21. Johnson, Simon (21 May 2015). "Alex Salmond: I'll campaign with Tories to stay in EU". The Daily Telegraph.
  22. "Home page". ukip.org. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  23. "Dickson – An EU referendum will threaten jobs and investment in Northern Ireland". Alliance Party of Northern Ireland. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  24. "Alliance expresses concerns over referendum idea". allianceparty.org. 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  25. Staff (February 2014). Green Party in Northern Ireland: Manifesto 2015 (PDF). greenpartyni.org. Green Party in Northern Ireland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  26. "Sinn Fein to protect EU membership". The Belfast Telegraph. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  27. SDLP. "International Affairs". Social Democratic and Labour Party. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  28. UUP. "Statement from the Ulster Unionist Party on EU Referendum". Ulster Unionist Party. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  29. Cromie, Claire (25 November 2015). "EU referendum: DUP gives backing to UKIP Brexit campaign, blasting David Cameron's 'pathetic demands'". The Belfast Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  30. "DUP to 'recommend vote to leave the EU'". The News Letter. Belfast. 20 February 2016.
  31. PBP. "Lexit: why we need a left exit from the eu". Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  32. "EU Membership is a Matter for UK Citizens, Not US President". tuv.org.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  33. "Feetham urges joint strategies with Govt on key issues". Gibraltar Chronicle. 19 January 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  34. 34.0 34.1 "Garcia flags constitutional reform and Brexit in New Year message". Gibraltar Chronicle. 5 January 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  35. "Official result of the EU Referendum is declared by Electoral Commission in Manchester". The Electoral Commission. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  36. "'Brexit' Triggers New Bid for Scottish Independence".
  37. "EU referendum result: Sinn Fein's Martin McGuinness calls for border poll on united Ireland after Brexit". The Independent. 24 June 2016.
  38. "Petition for London independence signed by thousands after Brexit vote".
  39. "Second Scotland Referendum 'Highly Likely'".
  40. Hedges-Stocks, Zoah. "Londoners call for independence from UK". Archived from the original on 2016-06-25. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
  41. [1]
  42. "Brexit: Petition for second EU referendum rejected". BBC News. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  43. Laura Kuenssberg. "'No turning back' on Brexit as Article 50 triggered". BBC News. Retrieved 29 March 2017.