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3D structure of part of human DNA polymerase beta (based on pdb file 7ICG)

A DNA polymerase is an enzyme which makes DNA molecules from its nucleotide building blocks. DNA polymerases are essential for DNA replication. They usually work in pairs as they copy one double-stranded DNA molecule into two double-stranded DNAs. In DNA replication DNA polymerase "reads" a piece of DNA that's already there and uses it to make a new piece that is the same as the old part.

DNA polymerases also play key roles in other processes within cells, including DNA repair, genetic recombination, reverse transcription, and antibody production. DNA polymerases are widely used in molecular biology laboratories, notably for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and molecular cloning.

DNA polymerase can only connect deoxyribonucleotides to a 3'-OH group that is already there, so DNA was always made in the 5'–3' direction.

Producing enzymes[change | change source]

The nucleus produces enzymes of DNA polymerase. It is used to copy DNA when the cell is going through Mitosis or Meiosis. The most certain enzyme is DNA polymerase which plays a central role in the process of life. The scientist copies the DNA correctly which is created by DNA polymerase. Each time this happens, the cells divide and it is highly accurate that in billion of bases it is making less than one mistake. [1]

DNA polymerase correcting errors[change | change source]

DNA polymerase moves along a single strand of DNA it builds the complementary strand as it goes on. After the synthesis cycle is complete, the two stranded molecules pass through the DNA polymerase molecules. Then, DNA polymerase will detect if there’s any wrong or missing a base and will replace it with the right one.[2]

File:DNA Polymerase correcting errors.jpg
DNA polymerase correcting errors

Pairing with DNA strand[change | change source]

Some enzymes start the process by unzipping the two strands of DNA, it’s that they twist around each other like a twisted ladder. Other proteins hold the strand the strand while the strands serve as a model. Then DNA Polymerase reads the existing DNA strand to create 2 new strands that match the existing one. Nucleotides that are floating freely in the nucleus can then pair up with the nucleotides of the existing DNA strands.

Forming between the nucleotides[change | change source]

DNA Polymerase forms the bonds together between the nucleotides in a new strand, and forms the sugar-phosphate column. Bases which are going around the nucleus then form hydrogen bonds with the complementary base pairs of one of the strands of the original DNA. Then the complementary bases pairs are bonded together with the help of the DNA Polymerase to form another strand of DNA.

References[change | change source]

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