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Media Literacy[change | change source]

Media literacy is a set of skills that allow people to understand and make messages in many kinds of media messages and presentations.

Education[change | change source]

Media Education is the process of teaching and learning about media.[1] It is about developing young people's ability to criticize media. In most industrialized countries, children now watch TV more than the amount of time they are in school, or anything else except for sleeping.[2] Media Education is influenced by a market bigger than itself.[1] Being able to understand media allows people to criticize, think about, and make many types and forms of messages. A person who is media literate is informed about how to think about and view media messages. There are many reasons why media research are not usually found in secondary schools, including cuts in finances, social services, and lack of time. Education for media literacy often uses teaching method based on helping people to ask questions about what they watch, hear, and read. Media literacy education helps people criticize messages, be able to expand their media experiences, and build skills used in making their own messages.[3]

Criticizing Media Messages[change | change source]

Criticizing messages can include identifying the person presenting the message, the purpose of the message and its view, examining how the message is set up, examining how it represents things, and detecting propaganda, censorship, and biases(and the reasons for these). Media literacy education may explore how certain things like who made or financed the messages can affect the information presented.[4] Media literate people should be able to make their own media messages. This shows understanding of the different parts of each type of media broadcast. Media literacy can be seen as a piece of an expanded idea of literacy, treating media as types of literature that require deep thinking and understanding. As people learn to criticize media messages they can become able to understand the possibility of biases in its messages and how those messages can change how they think about the world.[5] Media literacy education is sometimes presented as a way to discuss the bad parts of media presentations, including violence, stereotypes, the effects of sexual messages on children, and concerns related to the internet. Media literacy education can protect young people by helping them make good choices while viewing media like consciously watching less television.[6]

Concepts of Media Education[change | change source]

There are many ways to teach media education. It is usually defined by popular ideas or major parts of media.[1] This way does not define which parts should be paid attention to, causing media education to remain based on the interests of the people being educated. There are four major ideas that provide a theoretical structure which can be used for any kind of media: Production, Language, Representation, and audience."[1] These ideas are defined as:

•Production •Language •Representation •Audience

Production

Production is studied based on the understanding that media is consciously made.[1] Some media is made by people working alone, but most are produced and presented by groups of people and usually to make profits. Media literacy includes understanding the economic parts of media production, and how profits are made. Media educated people should be able to argue the effects of these parts of media production in concerning national and cultural identities, and certain groups able to receive media messages.[1] People who study media production ask questions like:

• What technologies are used to produce media texts?

• Who makes media texts?

• Who makes profit from media texts and how do they do it?

• How do messages about the same things change in different kinds of media?

• Who controls the production and broadcasting of media, and are there laws about this?

• How do messages reach people?

• Whose views are presented in the media and whose are not?[1]

Language

Every kind of media uses its own kind of languages and meanings. For example, television uses written and unwritten languages like moving images and sound. Some kinds of images and sounds can be used to raise emotions. When using spoken language, media languages choose certain words to represent ideas.[1] By thinking about these languages, people can better understand how meanings are made.[1] People who study media language ask questions like:

• How does media use different forms of language to describe ideas or meanings?

• How do uses of certain language become normal and accepted?

• How are the language 'rules' of media established and what happens when they are broken?

• How are these languages used in different types of media?

• What happens when certain forms of language are used?

• How are certain combinations of sounds, images, and words used to make meaning?

• How does technology change the kinds of meanings that are able to be made?[1]

Representation The idea of 'representation' is one of the first major parts of media education. The media offers receivers a different view of the world. Media is produced by picking and combining moments, making events into news, and making ideas about certain people. Media also presents information which makes viewers see the world in some ways and not others. People also judge how realistic media representations are based on their own experiences. They may see some media representations as real but not others: they may understand that what they are seeing is not real and while still knowing it can also be realistic.[1] Researching media representations means looking at:

• Is this representation meant to be realistic? Why does some media seem more realistic than others?

• How does media claim its representations are true?

• What is included in media representations of the world? What is not included?

• Are media representations supporting certain political or moral views about the world?

• How are social groups presented in media? Are those representations correct?

• Why do people think some media representations are true or false?

• Do media messages change our views of certain groups or issues?[1]

Audience

Researching audiences means looking at how media is directed at certain groups. It means looking at how people use, think about, and respond to media. Viewers are now able to do this better than they could in the past. This has made the media compete for their attention. Media education then must include learning to argue views about audiences and understanding our own and others' use of media. People who study media audiences ask questions like:

• How are media aimed at particular groups?

• How do the media speak to groups?

• How do media reach people?

• How do people use media on a daily basis?

• How do people understand media messages?

• What meanings do they make?

• How is media enjoyable for people?

• How do certain groups differ in how they view media?[1]

REFRENCES

1. Buckingham, David (2007). Media education : literacy, learning and contemporary culture (Reprinted. ed.). Cambridge [u.a]: Polity Press. ISBN 0745628303.

2. Jump up^ Rideout, Livingstone, Bovill. "Children's Usage of Media Technologies". SAGE Publications. Retrieved 2013-11-20.

3. Jump up^ The European Charter for Media Literacy. Euromedialiteracy.eu. Retrieved on 2013-11-20.

4. Jump up^ Jeong, Cho, Hwang. "Media Literacy Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review". SAGE Publications. Retrieved 2013-11-20.

5. Jump up^ e.g., Potter, W. J. (2013), Review of Literature on Media Literacy. Sociology Compass, 7: (417–435). doi: 10.1111/soc4.12041

6. Jump up^ Frau-Meigs, D. (2008). "Media education: Crossing a mental rubicon". Empowerment through media education: an intercultural dialogue, ed. Ulla Carlsson, Samy Tayie, Genevieve Jacqui not-Delaunay & Jose Manuel Perez Tornero, (pp. 169 – 180). Goteborg University, Sweden: The International Clearinghouse on Children, Youth and Media, Nordicom in cooperation with UNESCO, Dar Graphit and Mentor Association.

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Buckingham, David (2007). Media education : literacy, learning and contemporary culture (Reprinted. ed.). Cambridge [u.a]: Polity Press. ISBN 0745628303. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Buckingham" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Rideout, Livingstone, Bovill. "Children's Usage of Media Technologies". SAGE Publications. Retrieved 2012-04-25.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. The European Charter for Media Literacy. Euromedialiteracy.eu. Retrieved on 2011-12-21.
  4. See Corporate media and Public service broadcasting
  5. e.g., Media Literacy Resource Guide.
  6. Frau-Meigs, D. 2008. Media education: Crossing a mental rubicon.” It will also benefit generations to come in order to function in a technological and media filled world. In Empowerment through media education: An intercultural dialogue, ed. Ulla Carlsson, Samy Tayie, Genevieve Jacqui¬not-Delaunay and Jose Manuel Perez Tornero, (pp. 169 – 180). Goteborg University, Sweden: The International Clearinghouse on Children, Youth and Media, Nordicom in cooperation with UNESCO, Dar Graphit and Mentor Association.