Inclusion in education is a way to teach students with a number of different kinds of special educational needs.
About[change | change source]
A student with special needs has either physical, social, or mental needs that are different from other people. These children's needs fall anywhere on a wide scale. In the inclusion system, special needs students are kept with other students in a regular classroom. Inclusion is used in different ways in different schools. The individual school often decides how they will handle inclusion and how it is used in a school. However, it is important to note that inclusion is different from teaching processes such as mainstreaming. In inclusion schools, the material being taught to students is restructured by the teacher into a form that the student can understand. The student should be learning the same material as others. They will be learning in a form that is more understandable to them. Students are given support and attention in an age-level schoolroom within the guidelines of the core curriculum. They should also be getting special help as written in their IEPs. Many laws have been made in relation to education and inclusion. These laws are often formed around the idea that the child's education should take place in the freest environment possible. Many times this requires the use of aides in the classroom, special instruments, or more structured and helpful guides.
Types of Inclusion[change | change source]
Full inclusion is when a student that has special needs spends as much of the day with his or her peers. The goal is to teach them in the normal way. In full inclusion the purpose is to keep students in the room with his or her peers for the whole day. They are only taken out for needed support and no more. Sometimes these students are not taken out at all for help.
Partial inclusion is based on the idea that a student that needs help can learn better outside of the classroom. In partial inclusion students are more likely to be taken out of the classroom. This happens if their needs are more substantial or need a clear structure that cannot be given in the regular classroom. A large similarity exists between the two different types of inclusion. The main difference is that certain disability types are more readily and easily included than others.
History[change | change source]
Inclusion is an idea that began outside of the schoolroom. The idea began when disabled people began to fight for their rights in society. This attempt for equality was the first big attempt for people with disabilities. Those people were at the forefront of the movement. They were fighting for basic rights that others were given and they were not. It took laws such as the the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to get the movement into place. After these laws were passed, more specialized laws were put into place in relation to schools and education. Inclusion is not yet required in schools. Many laws have been made and are starting to become required in schools. Inclusion wil likely become more and more common in schools - though this is not definite.
Inclusion vs Mainstreaming[change | change source]
Mainstreaming is a different teaching idea that is based on a differentiated way of teaching as well. This should not be mixed up with inclusion. In mainstreaming it is the job of the student to work his or her way into the regular classroom. It is not a given right, but something that needs to be worked for. This method of teaching takes place most often outside of the classroom in special needs rooms. The substance of the information being taught is almost always changed to be easier.
Common Inclusion Practices[change | change source]
Common inclusion practices work very well with inclusion students but are also practices that should be used in every classroom. These ideas, while very helpful for students with special needs, also helps other students as well. Some of these ideas include:
- -Developing relationships that produce a sense of comfort and friendship between the teacher and the student.
- -Making the ideas that are being taught understandable for all children – using whatever tools and methods are needed.
- -Making connections between students lives and what is being taught. Ideas are more understandable and concrete this way.
- -Working with parents and other teachers to help the students as much possible.