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Voiced alveolar approximant

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Voiced alveolar approximant
IPA Number151
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɹ
Unicode (hex)U+0279
X-SAMPAr\ or D_r_o
Braille⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)

The alveolar approximant is a consonant. It is used in some languages. It is used in English where the letter "r" is used for the sound, as in run or brick. The International Phonetic Alphabet represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants as ⟨ɹ⟩. International Phonetic Alphabet represents it as a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees, or in broad transcriptionr⟩; the X-SAMPA symbol of this is ⟨r\⟩.

Many times the symbol is written as ⟨r⟩ instead of ⟨ɹ⟩ because typing ⟨r⟩ is easier.


[change | change source]


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Language Word IPA Meaning
Armenian Eastern սուրճ [suɹtʃʰ] 'coffee'
Chukchi ңирэк [ŋiɹek] 'two'
Dutch Goois door [doəɹ] 'through'
Leiden dialect rat [ɹat] 'rat'
English American dialects[1] red [ɹ̠ˤʷɛd] 'red'
Received Pronunciation
Faroese róður [ɹɔuwʊɹ] 'rudder'
German Westerwald[2] Rebe [ɹeːbə] 'vine shoot'
Upper Lusatian
Portuguese Many Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] verde [ˈveɹdʒɪ] 'green'
Some countryside Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] temporal [tẽjpoˈɾaɹ] 'rainstorm'
Spanish Some dialects[4] doscientos [do̞ɹˈθje̞nto̞s] 'two hundred'
Vietnamese rơ [ɹəː] 'to clean'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[5] r [ɹd̪ɨ] 'pass'
  1. Hallé, Best & Levitt (1999:283) citing Delattre & Freeman (1968), Zawadzki & Kuehn (1980), and Boyce & Espy-Wilson (1997)
  2. Wäller Platt: Die Aussprache
  3. Kohler (1995:165f), cited in Universität zu Köln: Phonologische Analyse
  4. Recasens (2004:436) citing Fougeron (1999) and Browman & Goldstein (1995)
  5. Merrill (2008:109)


[change | change source]
  • Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997), "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101 (6): 3741–3753, Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.3741B, doi:10.1121/1.418333, PMID 9193061
  • Browman, L.; Goldstein (1995), "Gestural syllable position in American English", in Bell-Berti, F.; Raphael, L.J. (eds.), Producing Speech: Contemporary issues for K Harris, New York: AIP, pp. 9–33
  • Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968), "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture", Linguistics, 44: 29–68
  • Fougeron, C (1999), "Prosodically conditioned articulatory variation: A Review", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, vol. 97, pp. 1–73
  • Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea; Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics, 27 (3): 281–306, doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097
  • Kohler, Klaus (1995), Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344, S2CID 232350024
  • Recasens, Daniel (2004), "The effect of syllable position on consonant reduction (evidence fromCatalan consonant clusters)", Journal of Phonetics, 32 (3): 435–453, doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.001
  • Zawadski, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980), "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/", Phonetica, 37 (4): 253–266, doi:10.1159/000259995, PMID 7443796, S2CID 46760239