Voiced alveolar approximant

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Alveolar approximant
IPA number151
Entity (decimal)ɹ
Unicode (hex)U+0279
X-SAMPAr\ or D_r_o


The alveolar approximant is a consonant. It is used in some languages. International Phonetic Alphabet represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants as ⟨ɹ⟩. International Phonetic Alphabet represents it as a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees, or in broad transcriptionr⟩; the X-SAMPA symbol of this is ⟨r\⟩.

Many times the symbol is written as ⟨r⟩ instead of ⟨ɹ⟩ because typing ⟨r⟩ is easier.

Features[change | change source]

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Armenian Eastern սուրճ [suɹtʃʰ] 'coffee'
Chukchi ңирэк [ŋiɹek] 'two'
Dutch Goois door [doəɹ] 'through'
Leiden dialect rat [ɹat] 'rat'
English American dialects[1] red [ɹ̠ˤʷɛd] 'red'
Received Pronunciation
Faroese róður [ɹɔuwʊɹ] 'rudder'
German Westerwald[2] Rebe [ɹeːbə] 'vine shoot'
Upper Lusatian
Portuguese Many Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] verde [ˈveɹdʒɪ] 'green'
Some countryside Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] temporal [tẽjpoˈɾaɹ] 'rainstorm'
Spanish Some dialects[4] doscientos [do̞ɹˈθje̞nto̞s] 'two hundred'
Vietnamese rơ [ɹəː] 'to clean'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[5] r [ɹd̪ɨ] 'pass'

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Hallé, Best & Levitt (1999:283) citing Delattre & Freeman (1968), Zawadzki & Kuehn (1980), and Boyce & Espy-Wilson (1997)
  2. Wäller Platt: Die Aussprache
  3. Kohler (1995:165f), cited in Universität zu Köln: Phonologische Analyse
  4. Recasens (2004:436) citing Fougeron (1999) and Browman & Goldstein (1995)
  5. Merrill (2008:109)

References[change | change source]

  • Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997), "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101 (6): 3741–3753, Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.3741B, doi:10.1121/1.418333, PMID 9193061
  • Browman, L.; Goldstein (1995), "Gestural syllable position in American English", in Bell-Berti, F.; Raphael, L.J. (eds.), Producing Speech: Contemporary issues for K Harris, New York: AIP, pp. 9–33
  • Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968), "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture", Linguistics, 44: 29–68
  • Fougeron, C (1999), "Prosodically conditioned articulatory variation: A Review", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, vol. 97, pp. 1–73
  • Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea; Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics, 27 (3): 281–306, doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097
  • Kohler, Klaus (1995), Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344, S2CID 232350024
  • Recasens, Daniel (2004), "The effect of syllable position on consonant reduction (evidence fromCatalan consonant clusters)", Journal of Phonetics, 32 (3): 435–453, doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.001
  • Zawadski, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980), "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/", Phonetica, 37 (4): 253–266, doi:10.1159/000259995, PMID 7443796, S2CID 46760239