Voiced velar nasal

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Velar nasal
ŋ
IPA number119
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ŋ
Unicode (hex)U+014B
X-SAMPAN
KirshenbaumN
Sound

 

The voiced velar nasal is a type of consonant. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ŋ⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨N⟩. The English language has this sound. It is the sound represented by ng in walking and angst.

Feeatures[change | change source]

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiced. This means that the vocal cords vibrate while the sound is being pronounced.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is velar. This means that this sound is produced with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • It is a nasal consonant. This means that air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Albanian ngaqë [ŋɡacə] 'because'
Aleut[1] chaang [tʃɑːŋ] 'five'
Arabic Hejazi
[source?]
مــنــقل/mingal [mɪŋɡal] 'brazier'
Armenian Eastern[2] ընկեր/ënker [əŋˈkɛɾ] 'friend'
Assamese ৰং/ŗông [ɹɔŋ] 'color'
Bambara ŋonI [ŋoni] 'guitar'
Bashkir мең / meñ audio speaker icon[mɪ̞ŋ]  'one thousand'
Basque hanka [haŋka] 'leg'
Bengali /rông [rɔŋ] 'color'
Bulgarian[3] тънко/tănko [ˈtɤŋko] 'thin'
Catalan[4] sang [ˈsɑ̃ŋ(k)] 'blood'
Chamorro ngånga' [ŋɑŋaʔ] 'duck'
Chinese Cantonese /ngong4 [ŋɔːŋ˩] 'raise'
Eastern Min /ngi [ŋi] 'suspect'
Gan /nga [ŋa] 'tooth'
Hakka /ngai [ŋai] 'I'
Mandarin 北京/beijing [peɪ˨˩tɕiŋ˥] 'Beijing'
Northern Min /ngui [ŋui] 'outside'
Southern Min /ng [ŋ̍] 'yellow'
Sichuanese /ngo [ŋɔ] 'I'
Wu /ng [ŋ˩˧] 'five'
Xiang /ngau [ŋau] 'to boil'
Yuci dialect of Jin /ngie [ŋie] 'I'
Chukchi ӈыроӄ/ṇyroq [ŋəɹoq] 'three'
Czech tank [taŋk] 'tank'
Dinka ŋa [ŋa] 'who'
Danish sang [sɑŋˀ] 'song'
Dutch[5] angst [ɑŋst] 'fear'
English sing [sɪŋ] 'sing'
Faroese ong [ɔŋk] 'meadow'
Fijian gone [ˈŋone] 'child'
Filipino ngayón [ŋaˈjon] 'now'
Finnish kangas [ˈkɑŋːɑs] 'cloth'
French[6] Standard camping [kɑ̃piŋ(ɡ)] 'camping'
Southern France pain [pɛŋ] 'bread'
Galician unha [ˈuŋa] 'one' (f.)
German lang [laŋ] 'long'
Greek άγχος / anchos ['aŋxo̞s] 'Stress'
Hebrew Standard אנגלית/anglit [aŋɡˈlit] 'English language'
Sephardi עין/nayin [ŋaˈjin] 'Ayin'
Hiligaynon buang [bu'äŋ] 'crazy/mentally unstable'
Hindustani Hindi रंग/रङ्ग/rag [rəŋg] 'color'
Urdu رن٘گ/rag
Fiji Hindustani Rang
Hungarian ing [iŋɡ] 'shirt'
Icelandic ng [ˈkœy̯ŋk] 'tunnel'
Inuktitut ᐆᖅ / puunnguuq [puːŋŋuːq] 'dog'
Inuvialuktun qamnguiyuaq [qamŋuijuaq] 'snores'
Irish a nglór [ˌə̃ ˈŋl̪ˠoːɾˠ] 'their voice'
Italian[7] anche [ˈaŋke] 'also'
Itelmen қниң [qniŋ] 'one'
Japanese Standard 南極 / nankyoku [naŋkʲokɯ] 'the South Pole'
Eastern dialects[8] / kagi [kaŋi] 'key'
Javanese ꦱꦺꦔꦏ꧀/Sengak [səŋŋak] stink
Kagayanen[9] manang [manaŋ] 'older sister'
Kazakh мың / myń [məŋ] 'thousand'
Kyrgyz миң/miñ [miŋ]
Ket аяң/ajaņ [ajaŋ] 'to damn'
Khasi ngap [ŋap] 'honey'
Khmer ងាយ / ngéay [ŋiəj] 'easy'
Korean 성에 / seonge [sʌŋe] 'window frost'
Kurdish Northern ceng [dʒɛŋ] 'war'
Central جه‌نگ/ceng
Southern
Luxembourgish[10] keng [kʰæŋ] 'nobody'
Macedonian aнглиски/angliski [ˈaŋɡliski] 'English'
Luganda ŋaaŋa [ŋɑːŋɑ] 'hornbill'
Malay Malaysian and Indonesian bangun [bäŋon] 'wake up'
Kelantan-Pattani sini [si.niŋ] 'here'
Terengganu ayam [a.jaŋ] 'chicken'
Malayalam[1] മാങ്ങ/mān̄n̄a [maːŋŋɐ] 'mango'
Māori[11] ngā [ŋaː] 'the'
Marathi रंग/ranga [rəŋə] 'colour'
Mari еҥ/eng [jeŋ] 'human'
Mongolian тэнгэр / teŋger [teŋger] 'sky'
Nepali /nang [nʌŋ] 'nail'
Nganasan ӈаӈ/ngang [ŋaŋ] 'mouth'
Nivkh ңамг/ngamg [ŋamɡ] 'seven'
North Frisian Mooring kåchelng [ˈkɔxəlŋ] 'stove'
Norwegian gang [ɡɑŋ] 'hallway'
Odia ଏବଂ/ebang [ebɔŋ] 'and'
Panjabi Gurmukhi ਰੰਗ/rang [rəŋ] 'color'
Shahmukhi رنگ/rang
Persian [ræːŋ]
Pipil nemanha [nemaŋa] 'later'
Polish[12] bank [bäŋk] 'bank'
Portuguese manga [ˈmɐ̃(ŋ)ɡɐ] 'mango'
Occitan Provençal vin [viŋ] 'wine'
Rapanui hanga [haŋa] 'bay'
Romanian Țara Moților Transylvanian[13] câine ['kɨŋi] 'dog'
Sāmoan gagana [ŋaˈŋana] 'language'
Serbo-Croatian[14] станка / stanka [stâːŋka] 'pause'
Seri comcáac [koŋˈkaak] 'Seri people'
Shona nanga [ŋaŋɡa] 'witch doctor'
Slovene tank [taŋk] 'tank'
Spanish[15] All dialects domingo [d̪o̞ˈmĩŋɡo̞] 'Sunday'
Galician Spanish, Andalusian, Canarian, and most Latin American dialects alquitrán [alkitˈɾaŋ] 'tar'
Swahili ng'ombe [ŋombɛ] 'cow'
Swedish ingenting [ɪŋɛnˈtʰɪŋ] 'nothing'
Tamil இங்கே/in̄gē [iŋgeː] 'here'
Thai าน/ngaan [ŋaːn] 'work'
Tongan tangata [taŋata] 'man'
Tuamotuan rangi / ragi [raŋi] 'sky'
Tundra Nenets ӈэва/ŋəwa [ŋæewa] 'head'
Turkmen ň [myŋ] 'thousand'
Tyap ɡwon [ŋɡʷən] 'child'
Uzbek ming [miŋ] 'thousand'
Venetian man [maŋ] 'hand'
Vietnamese[16] ngà [ŋaː˨˩] 'ivory'
Welsh rhwng [r̥ʊŋ] 'between'
West Frisian kening [ˈkeːnɪŋ] 'king'
Xhosa ing’ang’ane [iŋaŋaːne] 'hadada ibis'
Yi /nga [ŋa˧] 'I'
Yup'ik ungungssiq [uŋuŋssiq] 'animal'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[17] yan [jaŋ] 'neck'

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  2. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 19.
  3. Sabev, Mitko. "Bulgarian Sound System". Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  4. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  5. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  6. Wells (1989), p. 44.
  7. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 118.
  8. Okada (1999), p. 118.
  9. Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  10. Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  11. Reed (2001).
  12. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  13. Pop (1938), p. 31.
  14. Landau et al. (1999), p. 67
  15. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 258.
  16. Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  17. Merrill (2008), p. 109.

References[change | change source]

  • Anderson, Gregory D. S. (2008), "The Velar Nasal", in Haspelmath, Martin; Dryer, Matthew S; Gil, David; et al. (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, retrieved 2008-04-30
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Gussmann, Edmund (1974), Fisiak, Jacek (ed.), "Nasality in Polish and English" (PDF), Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University, 2: 105–122
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521153003
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages, vol. 1, Wiley-Blackwell
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296, S2CID 38504322
  • Ostaszewska, Danuta; Tambor, Jolanta (2000), Fonetyka i fonologia współczesnego języka polskiego, Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 83-01-12992-1
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Reed, A.W. (2001), Kāretu, Tīmoti (ed.), The Reed Concise Māori Dictionary
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Wells, J.C. (1989), "Computer-Coded Phonemic Notation of Individual Languages of the European Community", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 19 (1): 31–54, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005892