Voiced velar stop

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Voiced velar plosive
ɡ
IPA number110
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɡ
Unicode (hex)U+0261
X-SAMPAg
Kirshenbaumg
Sound

 

The voiced velar stop is a type of consonant. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨g⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨g⟩. The English language has this sound, and it is the sound represented by the "g" in gear and grow.

Feeatures[change | change source]

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiced. This means that the vocal cords vibrate while the sound is being pronounced.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is velar. This means that this sound is produced with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • The manner of articulation (how the sound is produced) is stop, or plosive. This means that this sound is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Abkhaz ажыга/ažyga [aˈʐəɡa] 'shovel'
Adyghe Shapsug гьэгуалъэ/g'ègwal"è audio speaker icon[ɡʲaɡʷaːɬa]  'toy'
Temirgoy чъыгы/ č"ygy audio speaker icon[t͡ʂəɡə]  'tree'
Albanian gomar [ˈɡomaɾ] 'donkey'
Arabic[1] Moroccan أݣادير‎/'agaadiir [ʔaɡaːdiːr] 'Agadir'
Tunisian ڨفصة‎‎/gafs'a audio speaker icon[ɡɑfsˤɑ] 'Gafsa'
Hejazi قمر/gamar [ɡamar] 'moon'
Najdi [ɡəmar]
Sa'idi [ɡɑmɑr]
Yemeni قال/gaal [gæːl] '(he) said'
جمل/gamal [gæmæl] 'camel'
Egyptian راجل/raagel [ˈɾɑːɡel] 'man'
Armenian Eastern[2] գանձ/ganç audio speaker icon[ɡɑndz]  'treasure'
Assyrian ܓܢܐ ɡana [ɡaːna] 'self'
Azerbaijani qara [ɡɑɾɑ] 'black'
Basque galdu [ɡaldu] 'lose'
Bengali গান/gan [ɡan] 'song'
Bulgarian гора/gora [ɡora] 'forest'
Catalan[3] guant [ˈɡwɑnt] 'glove'
Chinese Southern Min / góa [ɡua] 'I'
Wu / woã [ɡuɑ̃] 'crazy'
Xiang / wong [ɡoŋ] 'together'
Chechen говр/govr [ɡovr] 'horse'
Czech gram [ɡram] 'gram'
Dutch All dialects zakdoek audio speaker icon[ˈzɑɡduk]  'tissue'
Standard[4]
Many speakers goal audio speaker icon[ɡoːɫ]  'goal'
Amelands goëd [ɡuə̯t] 'good'
English gaggle [ˈɡæɡɫ̩] 'gaggle'
Esperanto bongusta [bonˈgusta] 'tasty'
Filipino gulo [ɡulɔ] 'commotion'
French[5] gain [ɡɛ̃] 'earnings'
Georgian[6] ული/guli [ˈɡuli] 'heart'
German ge [ˈlyːɡə] 'lie'
Greek γκάρισμα / gkárisma [ˈɡɐɾizmɐ] 'donkey's bray'
Gujarati ગાવું/gāvu [gaːʋʊ̃] 'to sing'
Hebrew גב/gav [ɡav] 'back'
Hindustani गाना / گانا [ɡɑːnɑː] 'song'
Hungarian engedély [ɛŋɡɛdeːj] 'permission'
Irish gaineamh [ˈɡanʲəw] 'sand'
Italian[7] gare [ˈɡäːre] 'competitions'
Japanese[8] 外套 / gaitō [ɡaitoː] 'overcoat'
Kabardian Baslaney гьанэ/ k'anė audio speaker icon[ɡʲaːna]  'shirt'
Kagayanen[9] kalag [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Khmer ហ្គាស / hkas [gaːh] 'gas'
Korean 메기 / megi [meɡi] 'catfish'
Lithuanian garai [ɡɐrɐɪ̯ˑ] 'steam'
Macedonian гром/grom [ɡrɔm] 'thunder'
Malay guni [ɡuni] 'sack'
Marathi वत [ɡəʋət] 'grass'
Nepali गाउँ [ɡä̃ũ̯] 'village'
Norwegian gull [ɡʉl] 'gold'
Odia ଗଛ/gacha [ɡɔtʃʰɔ] 'tree'
Persian گوشت/gušt [guʃt] 'meat'
Polish[10] gmin audio speaker icon[ɡmʲin̪]  'plebs'
Portuguese[11] língua [ˈɫĩɡwɐ] 'tongue'
Punjabi ਗਾਂ/gaa [ɡɑ̃ː] 'cow'
Romanian[12] gând [ɡɨnd] 'thought'
Russian[13] голова/golova audio speaker icon[ɡəɫɐˈva]  'head'
Serbo-Croatian[14] гост / gost [gȏ̞ːs̪t̪] 'guest'
Slovak miazga [ˈmjäzɡä] 'lymph'
Somali gaabi [ɡaːbi] 'to shorten'
Spanish[15] gato [ˈɡät̪o̞] 'cat'
Swahili giza [ˈɡīzɑ] 'darkness'
Swedish god [ɡuːd̪] 'tasty'
Turkish salgın [säɫˈɡɯn] 'epidemic'
Ukrainian[16] ґанок/g̀anok [ˈɡɑn̪ok] 'porch'
Welsh gwyn [ɡwɪn] or [ɡwɨ̞n] 'white'
West Frisian gasp [ɡɔsp] 'buckle' (n.)
Yi / gge [ɡɤ˧] 'hear'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[17] gan [ɡaŋ] 'will be able'

Notes[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505, S2CID 13470826
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0