Voiceless alveolar stop

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Voiceless alveolar plosive
t
IPA number103
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t
Unicode (hex)U+0074
X-SAMPAt
Kirshenbaumt
Sound

 

The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonant. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨t⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨t⟩. The English language has this sound, and it is the sound represented by "t" in tear and tool.

Features[change | change source]

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiceless. This means that this sound is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is alveolar. This means that this sound is produced with the tip of the tongue (apical) or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge (laminal).
  • The manner of articulation (how the sound is produced) is stop, or plosive. This means that this sound is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Adyghe тфы audio speaker icon[tfə]  'five'
Arabic Egyptian توكة tōka [ˈtoːkæ] 'barrette'
Assyrian ܒܝܬܐ bèta [beːta] 'house'
Bengali টাকা [t̠aka] 'Taka'
Czech toto [ˈtoto] 'this'
Danish Standard[1] dåse [ˈtɔ̽ːsə] 'can' (n.)
Dutch[2] taal [taːɫ] 'language'
English Most speakers tick [tʰɪk] 'tick'
New York[3]
Finnish parta [ˈpɑrtɑ] 'beard'
Hebrew תמונה [tmuˈna] 'image'
Hungarian[4] tutaj [ˈtutɒj] 'raft'
Kabardian тхуы audio speaker icon[txʷə]  'five'
Khmer តែ / tê [tae] 'tea'
Korean 대숲 / daesup [tɛsup̚] 'bamboo forest'
Kurdish Northern tu [tʰʊ] 'you'
Central تەوێڵ [tʰəweːɫ] 'forehead'
Southern تێوڵ [tʰeːwɨɫ]
Luxembourgish[5] dënn [tən] 'thin'
Maltese tassew [tasˈsew] 'true'
Mapudungun[6] ta [ˈfɘtɜ] 'elderly'
Nunggubuyu[7] darawa [taɾawa] 'greedy'
Nuosu[which?] da [ta˧]
Portuguese[8] Some dialects troço [ˈtɾɔsu] 'thing' (pejorative)
Thai ta [taː˧] 'eye'
Vietnamese ti [ti] 'flaw'
West Frisian tosk [ˈtosk] 'tooth'

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Basbøll (2005), p. 61.
  2. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  3. Wells (1982), p. 515.
  4. Szende (1994), p. 91.
  5. Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  6. Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88–89.
  7. Ladefoged (2005), p. 158.
  8. Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited (in Portuguese)

References[change | change source]

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Illustrations of the IPA: Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell