Voiceless bilabial stop

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Voiceless bilabial plosive
p
IPA number101
Encoding
Entity (decimal)p
Unicode (hex)U+0070
X-SAMPAp
Kirshenbaump
Sound

 

The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonant. The letter for this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨p⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol for this sound is ⟨p⟩. The English language has this sound, and it is the sound represented by "p" in pear and paper.

Features[change | change source]

  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic. This means that this sound is produced by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • The phonation is voiceless. This means that this sound is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • The place of articulation (where the sound is produced) is bilabial. This means that this sound is produced with both lips.
  • The manner of articulation (how the sound is produced) is stop, or plosive. This means that this sound is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

Examples[change | change source]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Adyghe паӏо/paio audio speaker icon[paːʔʷa]  'hat'
Arabic Algerian پاپيش/pāpīš [paːpiːʃ] 'beautiful girls'
Hejazi پول/pōl [po̞ːl] 'Paul'
Egyptian كبش/kabš [kɛpʃ] 'ram'
Armenian Eastern[1] պապիկ/papik audio speaker icon[pɑpik]  'grandpa'
Assyrian ܦܬܐ pata [pata] 'face'
Basque harrapatu [(h)arapatu] 'to catch'
Bengali Eastern পানি/panī [paniː] 'water'
Catalan[2] por [ˈpɔ(ɾ)] 'fear'
Chinese Cantonese 爆炸 / baauja audio speaker icon[paːu˧ t͡saː˧] 'explosion'
Mandarin 爆炸 / bàozhà audio speaker icon[pɑʊ˥˩ tʂa˥˩]
Chuvash путене/putene [put̬ʲɛ'nɛ] 'quail'
Czech pes [pɛs] 'dog'
Danish Standard[3] bog [ˈpɔ̽ʊ̯ˀ] 'book'
Dutch[4] plicht [plɪxt]
English pack [pʰæk] 'pack'
Esperanto tempo [ˈtempo] 'time'
Filipino pato [paˈto] 'duck'
Finnish pappa [ˈpɑpːɑ] 'grandpa'
French[5] pomme [pɔm] 'apple'
German Pack [pʰak] 'pile'
Greek πόδι / pódi [ˈpo̞ði] 'leg'
Gujarati /pag [pəɡ] 'foot'
Hebrew פּקיד/pakid [pakid] 'clerk'
Hindustani Urdu پل/pal [pəl] 'moment'
Hindi पल / pal
Hungarian pápa [ˈpaːpɒ] 'pope'
Italian[6] papà [paˈpa] 'dad'
Japanese[7] ポスト / posuto [posɯto] 'mailbox'
Kabardian пэ/pė audio speaker icon[pa]  'nose'
Khmer ពន្យល់ / pônyól [pɔnjɔl] 'to explain'
Korean / bit [pit̚] 'light'
Kurdish Northern por [ˈpʰoːɾ] 'hair'
Central پیرۆزە/píroze [pʰiːɾoːzæ] 'lammergeier'
Southern پۊنگه/pûûnga [pʰʉːŋa] 'pennyroyal'
Lakota púza [ˈpʊza] 'dry'
Lithuanian pastatas [ˈpaːstɐtɐs] 'building'
Luxembourgish[8] bëlleg [ˈpələɕ] 'cheap'
Macedonian пее/pee [pɛː] 'sing'
Malay panas [pänäs] 'hot'
Maltese aptit [apˈtit] 'appetite'
Marathi पाऊस/paa'uus/pā'ūs [pɑːˈuːs] 'rain'
Mutsun po·čor [poːt͡ʃor] 'a sore'
Nepali पिता/pitā [pit̪ä] 'father'
Norwegian pappa [pɑpːɑ] 'dad'
Odia ଥର/pathara [pɔʈʰɔrɔ] 'stone'
Pashto پانير/pa'nir [pɑˈnir] 'cheese'
Persian پول/pul [pul] 'money'
Pirahã pibaóí [ˈpìbàóí̯] 'otter'
Polish[9] pas audio speaker icon[päs]  'belt'
Portuguese[10] pai [paj] 'father'
Punjabi ਪੱਤਾ/pattaa/pattā [pət̪ːäː] 'leaf'
Romanian pas [pas] 'step'
Russian[11] плод/plod [pɫot̪] 'fruit'
Serbo-Croatian[12] пиће / piće [pǐːt͡ɕě] 'drink'
Slovak pes [pɛ̝s] 'dog'
Spanish[13] peso [ˈpe̞so̞] 'weight'
Swahili pombe [ˈpoᵐbɛ] 'beer'
Swedish apa [ˈɑːˌpa] 'monkey'
Thai ป้/paeng [pɛ̂ːŋ] 'powder'
Tsez пу/pu [pʰu] 'side'
Turkish kap [kʰäp] 'pot'
Ukrainian[14] павук/pavuk [pɐˈβ̞uk] 'spider'
Vietnamese[15] nhíp [ɲip˧ˀ˥] 'tweezers'
Welsh siop [ʃɔp] 'shop'
West Frisian panne [ˈpɔnə] 'pan'
Yi / ba [pa˧] 'exchange'
Central Alaskan Yup'ik panik [panik] 'daughter'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[16] pan [paŋ] 'bread'

Notes[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505, S2CID 13470826
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344