War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)
Part of the Global War on Terrorism, and
the continuous Afghanistan conflict
Taliban fighters in 2021
Date7 October 2001 – 30 August 2021
Operation Enduring Freedom: 7 October 2001 – 28 December 2014
Operation Freedom's Sentinel: 1 January 2015 – 15 August 2021
Location
Result

Taliban victory[29]

Belligerents
Invasion (2001):
Afghanistan Northern Alliance
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Canada
 Australia
 Italy
 New Zealand[1]
 Germany[2]
Invasion (2001):
Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan[3]
al-Qaeda
055 Brigade[4][5]
IMU[6]
TNSM[7]
ETIM[8]

ISAF/RS phase:
 Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
(2002–2004)
 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
(2004-2021)


Resolute Support
(2015–2021) (36 countries)[9]

ISAF/RS phase:
Afghanistan Taliban

al-Qaeda
(al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS)[12]
Afghanistan Taliban splinter groups
Supported by:

RS phase (2015–2021):
ISIL–KP[27]

Commanders and leaders
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf Ghani
United States Joe Biden
United Kingdom Boris Johnson
Australia Scott Morrison
Italy Mario Draghi
Germany Angela Merkel
Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr.
John F. Campbell
Afghanistan Mohammed Omar #
Afghanistan Akhtar Mansoor 
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan Jalaluddin Haqqani #[31]
Afghanistan Obaidullah Akhund [30]
Afghanistan Dadullah Akhund [30]
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Osama bin Laden 
Ayman al-Zawahiri
Asim Umar 
Afghanistan
Haji Najibullah[32]
Shahab al-Muhajir [33]
Hafiz Saeed Khan 
Mawlavi Habib Ur Rahman[34]
Abdul Haseeb Logari 
Abdul Rahman Ghaleb 
Abu Saad Erhabi 
Abdullah Orokzai  (POW)
Qari Hekmat 
Mufti Nemat Surrendered
Dawood Ahmad Sofi 
Mohamed Zahran 
Ishfaq Ahmed Sofi 
Strength

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Afghan National Security Forces: 352,000[35]
Resolute Support Mission: ~17,000[36]

Military Contractors: 20,000+[37]

Afghanistan Taliban: 60,000
(tentative estimate)[38]

HIG: 1,500–2,000+[42]
al-Qaeda: ~300[43][44][45] (~ 3,000 in 2001)[43]


Afghanistan IEHCA: 3,000–3,500[15]
Fidai Mahaz: 8,000[32]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL–KP: 3,500–4,000 (2018, in Afghanistan)[46]
Casualties and losses

Afghan security forces:
67,558–70,558+ killed[47][48]
Northern Alliance:
200 killed[49][50][51][52][53]

Coalition:
Dead: 3,576

Wounded: 22,773

  • United States: 19,950[55]
  • United Kingdom: 2,188[56]
  • Canada: 635[57]

Contractors
Dead: 3,937[58][59]
Wounded: 15,000+[58][59]

Total killed: 73,295+
51,191+ killed[47] (2,000+ al-Qaeda fighters)[43] ISIL–KP: 2,400+ killed[27]

Civilians killed: 47,960+[47]


Total killed: 212,191+ (per UCDP)[60]


a The continued list includes nations who have contributed fewer than 200 troops as of November 2014.[61]

b The continued list includes nations who have contributed fewer than 200 troops as of May 2017.[62]
Clockwise from top: A U.S. Air Force warplane dropping a JDAM on a cave in eastern Afghanistan; US soldiers in a firefight with Taliban forces in Kunar Province; An Afghan National Army soldier surveying atop a Humvee; Afghan and US soldiers move through snow in Logar Province; Canadian forces fire an M777 howitzer in Helmand Province; An Afghan soldier surveying a valley in Parwan Province; British troops preparing to board a Chinook during Operation Tor Shezada.
UK and US forces in Afghanistan in 2006

The War in Afghanistan was a war fought by the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia and other countries against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, after the terrorist attacks against the US on September 11, 2001.[63]

On 31 August 2021 (local time), the war ended as the last coalition soldiers (from foreign countries), left Afghanistan.[64][65]

History[change | change source]

The war started when the US invaded Afghanistan in 2001.[66] The US and its allies forced the Taliban and Al-Qaeda to hide. In December 2001, the US and its allies founded a new government for Afghanistan. Its president was Hamid Karzai.

By February 2002, 5,000 soldiers from ISAF (or International Security Assistance Force) were in Afghanistan.[67] That military force was led by United States. ISAF's soldiers were on loan from the militaries of NATO countries and allied countries. In 2012 ISAF was at its maximum: 130,000 soldiers (in Afghanistan).[68]

In 2004 Hamid Karzai started as the first president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.[69] Even though the Taliban had lost power, they formed a "shadow government". Taliban insurgents, or fighters, controlled many parts of Afghanistan, and enforced their own laws.[70]

Osama bin Laden was killed in Pakistan, May 2011.

British troops left Afghanistan in 2015, after 5 years of training the Afghanistan police to deal with threats from the Taliban.[71]

After security deteriorated, American soldiers returned and over 10,000 were in the country at the end of 2017. In 2020, the US and NATO allies promised to leave Afghanistan as long as the Taliban agreed to certain things: not allowing terrorists to operate in its area, and starting peace talks with the Afghanistan government.[72] In mid-2021, the Taliban began a military offensive to enlarge their territory as US and allied forces began to leave. By August 15, 2021, the Taliban had recaptured Kabul and defeated the Afghan government.[73]

An anti-Taliban front took control of the Panjshir Valley, in August 2021.

During the 2021 evacuation from Afghanistan, over 150,000 people chose to to be taken out of Afghanistan; They were diplomats, other civilian staff, other civilians, and military staff.[74][75]

The last military airplanes of the United States, left the airport in Kabul, one minute before 31 August 2021.[76]

On 31 August 2021 (local time), the war ended.[77]

Deaths and injuries[change | change source]

More than 15,000 Coalition soldiers were wounded: 6,773 US,[78] 3,954 UK,[79][80] 1,500 Canadian[81] and over 2,500 other Coalition soldiers. 5,500 Afghan army soldiers and 200 Northern Alliance militants were killed in this war. 378 US civilian contractors were killed and 7,224.

Aftermath[change | change source]

An anti-Taliban front has control of the Panjshir Valley, as of 2021's third quarter.

Gallery[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Crosby, Ron (2009). NZSAS: The First Fifty Years. Viking. ISBN 978-0-67-007424-2.
  2. "Operation Enduring Freedom Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  3. "News – Resolute Support Mission". Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  4. "The elite force who are ready to die". The Guardian. 27 October 2001.
  5. Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, p.48
  6. "Pakistan's 'fanatical' Uzbek militants". BBC. 11 June 2014.
  7. "Pakistan's militant Islamic groups". BBC. 13 January 2002.
  8. "Evaluating the Uighur Threat". the long war journal. 9 October 2008.
  9. "Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. "Taliban storm Kunduz city". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  11. 11.0 11.1 The Taliban's new leadership is allied with al Qaeda, The Long War Journal, 31 July 2015
  12. https://www.indiatvnews.com/news/world/al-qaeda-operates-under-taliban-protection-un-report-721719
  13. Rod Nordland (19 May 2012). "In Afghanistan, New Group Begins Campaign of Terror". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  14. Rod Nordland; Jawad Sukhanyar; Taimoor Shah (19 June 2017). "Afghan Government Quietly Aids Breakaway Taliban Faction". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Matthew DuPée (January 2018). "Red on Red: Analyzing Afghanistan's Intra-Insurgency Violence". Combating Terrorism Center. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  16. "Central Asian groups split over leadership of global jihad". The Long War Journal. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  17. "Who is Lashkar-e-Jhangvi?". Voanews.com. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  18. "ISIS 'OUTSOURCES' TERROR ATTACKS TO THE PAKISTANI TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN: U.N. REPORT". Newsweek. 15 August 2017.
  19. "Report: Iran pays $1,000 for each U.S. soldier killed by the Taliban". NBC News. 9 May 2010.
  20. Tabatabai, Ariane M. (9 August 2019). "Iran's cooperation with the Taliban could affect talks on U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan". The Washington Post.
  21. https://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2021/08/13/2553606/iran-closes-consulate-in-mazar-i-sharif-as-fighting-escalates-in-northern-afghanistan
  22. Martinez, Luis (10 July 2020). "Top Pentagon officials say Russian bounty program not corroborated". ABC News.
  23. Shams, Shamil (4 March 2020). "US-Taliban deal: How Pakistan's 'Islamist support' finally paid off". Deutsche Welle.
  24. Jamal, Umair (23 May 2020). "Understanding Pakistan's Take on India-Taliban Talks". The Diplomat.
  25. "Saudis Bankroll Taliban, Even as King Officially Supports Afghan Government". The New York Times. 12 June 2016.
  26. "China offered Afghan militants bounties to attack US soldiers: reports". Deutsche Welle. 31 December 2020.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Seldin, Jeff (18 November 2017). "Afghan Officials: Islamic State Fighters Finding Sanctuary in Afghanistan". VOA News. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  28. "Uzbek militants in Afghanistan pledge allegiance to ISIS in beheading video". khaama.com.
  29. Effie Pedaliu (16 August 2021). "The Taliban's victory proves the West has failed to learn the lessons of the past". LSE EUROPP. London School of Economics. Retrieved 23 August 2021.;
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 "'Afghan Taliban leader Mullah Omar is dead'". The Express Tribune. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  31. "'The Kennedys of the Taliban movement' lose their patriarch". NBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Mullah Najibullah: Too Radical for the Taliban". Newsweek. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  33. "Who Is the New Leader of Islamic State-Khorasan Province?". Lawfare. 2 September 2020.
  34. Shalizi, Hamid (7 April 2018). "Afghan air strike kills Islamic State commander" – via www.reuters.com.
  35. "The Afghan National Security Forces Beyond 2014: Will They Be Ready?" (PDF). Centre for Security Governance. February 2014.
  36. "NATO and Afghanistan". NATO. 6 July 2021.
  37. Peters, Heidi M.; Plagakis, Sofia (10 May 2019). "Department of Defense Contractor and Troop Levels in Afghanistan and Iraq: 2007-2018". crsreports.congress.gov. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  38. Akmal Dawi. "Despite Massive Taliban Death Toll No Drop in Insurgency". Voanews.com. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  39. Rassler, Don; Vahid Brown (14 July 2011). "The Haqqani Nexus and the Evolution of al-Qaida" (PDF). Harmony Program. Combating Terrorism Center. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  40. Reuters. "Sirajuddin Haqqani dares US to attack N Waziristan, by Reuters, Published: September 24, 2011". Tribune. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  41. Perlez, Jane (14 December 2009). "Rebuffing U.S., Pakistan Balks at Crackdown". The New York Times.
  42. "Afghanistan after the Western Drawdown". Google books. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 "In Afghanistan, al-Qaeda is working more closely with the Taliban, Pentagon says". the Washington post. 6 May 2016.
  44. Bill Roggio (26 April 2011). "How many al Qaeda operatives are now left in Afghanistan? – Threat Matrix". Longwarjournal.org. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  45. "Al Qaeda in Afghanistan Is Attempting A Comeback". The Huffington Post. 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  46. "S/2018/705 - E - S/2018/705 -Desktop". undocs.org.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 "Human and Budgetary Costs of Afghan War, 2001-2021" (pdf). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  48. The New York Times reported at least 1,558 security forces members and 715 civilians were killed in the period between 1 May and 5 August 2021.[1][2][3][4]
  49. "Scores Killed in Fresh Kunduz Fighting". Foxnews.com. 26 November 2001. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  50. Morello, Carol; Loeb, Vernon (6 December 2001). "Friendly fire kills 3 GIs". Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  51. Terry McCarthy/Kunduz (18 November 2001). "A Volatile State of Siege After a Taliban Ambush". Time. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  52. John Pike (9 December 2001). "VOA News Report". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  53. "US Bombs Wipe Out Farming Village". Rawa.org. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  54. "UK military deaths in Afghanistan". 3 November 2015 – via www.bbc.com.
  55. "U.S. Department of Defense" (PDF). U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009.
  56. "Number of Afghanistan UK Military and Civilian casualties (7 October 2001 to 30 November 2014)" (PDF). www.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  57. "Over 2,000 Canadians were wounded in Afghan mission: report". National Post. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  58. 58.0 58.1 "U.S. Department of Labor – Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) – Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation". Dol.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  59. 59.0 59.1 T. Christian Miller (23 September 2009). "U.S. Government Private Contract Worker Deaths and Injuries". Projects.propublica.org. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  60. "UCDP - Uppsala Conflict Data Program". www.ucdp.uu.se.
  61. "International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures" (PDF).
  62. "Resolute Support Mission (RSM): Key Facts and Figures" (PDF).
  63. "The U.S. War in Afghanistan". 12 September 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  64. https://edition.cnn.com/2021/08/30/politics/us-military-withdraws-afghanistan/index.html
  65. Afghanistan Live Updates: The United States Occupation Is Over
  66. "Afghanistan: Why is there a war?". BBC News. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  67. ISAF in Afghanistan Archived 12 June 2002 at the Wayback Machine CDI, Terrorism Project – 14 February 2002.
  68. "NATO sets "irreversible" but risky course to end Afghan war". Reuters. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  69. Neumann, Brian F. (2013). Operation Enduring Freedom. March 2002-April 2005. U.S. Army Center of Military History.
  70. Witte, Griff (8 December 2009). "Taliban establishes elaborate shadow government in Afghanistan". ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  71. "U.S. Department of Labor - Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation (DLHWC) -". dol.gov.
  72. "Afghanistan: Biden calls for end to 'America's longest war'". BBC News. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  73. Zucchino, David (16 August 2021). "The War in Afghanistan: How It Started and How It Is Ending". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  74. "Afghanistan: How many people have been evacuated by each country?". Sky News. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  75. "Factbox: Evacuations from Afghanistan by country". Reuters. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  76. https://www.reuters.com/world/india/rockets-fired-kabul-airport-us-troops-race-complete-evacuation-2021-08-30/. Retrieved 31 August 2021
  77. https://edition.cnn.com/2021/08/30/politics/us-military-withdraws-afghanistan/index.html
  78. "US casualties" (PDF). United States Department of Defense.
  79. "Op Herrick".
  80. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/03645441-065E-4E0A-9F62-B8AEBDAC8151/0/opherrickcasualtytablesto15june2010.pdf
  81. Wark, Bruce. "1,580 Canadian soldiers injured and killed in Afghanistan". The Coast Halifax.