Wikipedia:VideoWiki/Pneumonia

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Definition[change source]

Pneumonia, is an inflammatory condition of the lung. It is most often caused, by an infection from bacteria.[1][2]

Chest radiograph in influensa and H influenzae, posteroanterior, annotated.jpg


Onset of illness[change source]

Symptoms for pneumonia, typically include, cough, fatigue, chills, and shortness of breath. Each of the symptoms, occurs with different frequencies.[3]

CT chest in pneumonia with abscesses caverns and effusions.jpg


Elderly[change source]

In the elderly, confusion, may be the most prominent sign,[3] and fever, is less likely to be present.

Old man being assisted.jpg


Children Early Symptoms[change source]

In children, under the age of five, fever, cough, and fast or difficult breathing, are the most common symptoms.[4]

Fever.png


Children Severe Pneumonia[change source]

More severe signs, and symptoms, in children may include, blue-tinged skin, unwillingness to drink, convulsions, ongoing vomiting, extremes of temperature, or a decreased level of consciousness.[4][5]

Cyanotic neonate.jpg


Causes[change source]

Pneumonia, fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, limiting how much oxygen, can be absorbed. The alveolus, on the left, is normal, whereas, the one on the right, is full of fluid from pneumonia.

New Pneumonia cartoon.jpg


Bacterial Pneumonia[change source]

Pneumonia, is usually caused by infection from bacteria, or viruses. It is less commonly caused by other microorganisms, certain medications, and conditions, such as autoimmune diseases.[1][6]

Streptococcus pneumoniae.jpg


Risk factors[change source]

Risk factors for pneumonia, include smoking, a poor ability to cough, (such as after a stroke or surgery), and other lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis,, COPD,, and asthma.[7]

Broken Joint.jpg


Diagnosis[change source]

Diagnosis, is often based on symptoms, and physical examination alone.[8]

Medical clinic work in Couva DVIDS126504.jpg


Diagnosis - Other Methods[change source]

Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum, may help confirm the diagnosis.[8]

Chest Xray 40 yr old male acute respiratory distress syndrome as a complication of murine typhus. 13-1421-F1.jpg


Classification[change source]

Where, and how a pneumonia was acquired, can have a profound impact on survival. Examples are, community-acquired, or hospital-acquired pneumonia. [9]

Hospital Bed 2011.JPG


Prevention[change source]

Because, most pneumonias, are acquired from someone else that is infected, handwashing, and wearing surgical masks around the sick, are the most important preventative steps[10].


Vaccine[change source]

Vaccines, to prevent certain types of pneumonia, are available.[11]

Poliodrops.jpg


Other Methods[change source]

Other methods of prevention, include smoking cessation, and treating underlying illnesses, (such as diabetes and HIV), properly.[11]

Broken cigarrette.jpg


Treatment[change source]

Antibiotics by mouth, rest, and simple analgesics and fluids, are usually enough, to treat uncomplicated pneumonia.[12]

Generic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets with 875mg amoxicillin.jpg


Children[change source]

In children, those with respiratory distress, should be hospitalized.[13]


Prognosis[change source]

With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia, will stabilize in 3–6 days.[14] It often takes a few weeks before most symptoms resolve.[14].

Recovery area of a hospital in Kabul.jpg


Severe pneumonia[change source]

If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized, [15] and oxygen therapy may be necessary.[16]

Plastic oxygen mask on an ER patient.jpg


References[change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 McLuckie, A., ed. (2009). Respiratory disease and its management. New York: Springer. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84882-094-4.
  2. Leach, Richard E. (2009). Acute and Critical Care Medicine at a Glance (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6139-8.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hoare Z, Lim WS (May 2006). "Pneumonia: update on diagnosis and management" (PDF). BMJ. 332 (7549): 1077–79. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7549.1077. PMC 1458569. PMID 16675815.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Singh V, Aneja S (March 2011). "Pneumonia – management in the developing world". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 12 (1): 52–59. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2010.09.011. PMID 21172676.
  5. Nair GB, Niederman MS (November 2011). "Community-acquired pneumonia: an unfinished battle". The Medical Clinics of North America. 95 (6): 1143–61. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2011.08.007. PMID 22032432.
  6. Jeffrey C. Pommerville (2010). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology (9th ed.). Sudbury MA: Jones & Bartlett. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-7637-6258-2.
  7. "Who Is at Risk for Pneumonia?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  9. "Types of Pneumonia". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  10. "Pneumonia (Fact sheet N°331)". World Health Organization. August 2012. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  12. Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, Hill AT, Jamieson C, Le Jeune I, Macfarlane JT, Read RC, Roberts HJ, Levy ML, Wani M, Woodhead MA (October 2009). "BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009". Thorax. 64 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii–155. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.121434. PMID 19783532.
  13. Bradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, Alverson B, Carter ER, Harrison C, Kaplan SL, Mace SE, McCracken GH, Moore MR, St Peter SD, Stockwell JA, Swanson JT (October 2011). "The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (7): e25–76. doi:10.1093/cid/cir531. PMID 21880587.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Behera, D. (2010). Textbook of pulmonary medicine (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. pp. 296–97. ISBN 978-81-8448-749-7.
  15. "What Is Pneumonia?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  16. "How Is Pneumonia Treated?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.