Wound healing

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

When person is wounded, the tissue at the wound is damaged. Many organisms can replace this damaged tissue with new tissue. This occurs in several steps, and is generally known as tissue healing, or wound healing.[1][2]

Hand abrasion
Approximate days since injury
0 3 17 30

In undamaged skin, the epidermis (surface layer) and dermis (deeper layer) form a protective barrier against the external environment. When the barrier is broken, biochemical events repair the damage.[2][3] This process is divided into predictable phases: blood clotting (hemostasis), inflammation, tissue growth (proliferation), and tissue remodelling (maturation). Blood clotting may be seen as part of the inflammation stage instead of a separate stage.[4]

In general, after the wound is fully healed, a scar will remain. Even after the scar has appeared remodelling processes take place. It can take a very long time until this scar has reached its final form.

Sometimes complications from wound healing can occur. A common one is infections during the healing process, which will lead to more scars or larger ones.

This process is not limited to humans, but it does not apply to organisms with a hard exoskeleton such as arthropods.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Soft Tissue Repair and Healing Review". Electrotherapy on the Web. Archived from the original on 2020-03-22. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Nguyen DT, Orgill DP, Murphy GT (2009). "4 The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous Regeneration". Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss. Elsevier. pp. 25–57. Orgill DP, Blanco C (editors). ISBN 978-1-84569-554-5.
  3. Rieger S, Zhao H, Martin P, Abe K, Lisse TS (January 2015). "The role of nuclear hormone receptors in cutaneous wound repair". Cell Biochemistry and Function. 33 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1002/cbf.3086. PMC 4357276. PMID 25529612.
  4. Stadelmann WK, Digenis AG, Tobin GR (August 1998). "Physiology and healing dynamics of chronic cutaneous wounds". American Journal of Surgery. 176 (2A Suppl): 26S–38S. doi:10.1016/S0002-9610(98)00183-4. PMID 9777970.