Xoraxane Roma

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Xoraxane (pronunciation: Horahane), or Turkish Gypsy is a religious Umbrella term for Muslims Roma people groups from the Balkans, Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Crimea and there descendants who live everywhere in different parts of the World. They convert to Sunni Islam at the time of the Ottoman Empire, to not pay Jizya.[1] Some of them are Bektashi or belong to another Sufism Tarika. Xoraxane Men are all Circumcised, it is a big event for them to celebrate a Sünnet-Party for there sons.[2] The meaning of the name Xoraxane means for Muslim, i.e. Turks and Turkish Lifestyle in the Romani language, regardless of which country they live in and which subgroup they belong to, or even they speak Turkish language or not. Muslim Roma who lost there subgroup knowledge, are named only as Xoraxane Roma.[3] The biggest group are the Romanlar in Turkey. In Bulgaria, Greece,[4] Northern Cyprus, Turkey and Romania[5] (Dobruja),[6] many Xoraxane became Turkificated with the time and deny there Roma Background, speak only Turkish and have a strong Turkish Identity trough Cultural assimilation in Turkish society and declare themselves as Turkish people only, but some speak Xoraxane Romani dialect together, like in Greek Thrace.[7] Muslim Roma have nothing in common with Christian Roma, especially the Turkish speaking Muslim Roma made a big distant to Christian Roma.[8] Gene flow from Turks into the Xoraxane Roma population at the Ottoman Empire , happend trough the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.[9]

The Egyptians Act 1530 and Egyptian Act of 1554 expelled Roma people from England. 10,000 thousand expelled Roma people went to the Ottoman Empire and became Muslims. There descendants call themself until today Egyptians.[10]

In the countrys who once belongend to former Yugoslavia many Xoraxane Roma hide there Romani Heritage too, and speak only Albanian language, or one of the several South Slavic languages, few also speak Turkish language.

Under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, the so called Turkmen Copt, an Ottoman Turkish language speaking Muslim Roma group of 4 clans was settled in the Balkans[11] Some of this Turkish speaking Muslim Gypsy Men from Bulgaria went to Poland as Guest workers and married Polish Woman and got children with them.[12] This Offsprings called Didikai or Didicoy, a Romani language term for people with mixed Romani blood.[13],[14]

A Group of Nomadic Xoraxane went from Bulgaria to Persia under the reign of Nader Shah and became Shia Muslim. They still live in Iran until today and named Zargari tribe, and speak there own Romano language, havenly influenced with words from Azerbaijani language and Persian language.[15]

At the Greek War of Independence 1821–1829, Crimean War 1853–1856, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Balkan Wars 1912-1913, World War I 1914-1918, and the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, many Xoraxane-Roma together with other Non-Romani Muslims was expelled from Bulgaria and Greece and other parts of the Balkans to settle in Turkey.[16],[17],[18]

From Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia, some People of Muslim Roma Background came to Germany and Austria in the 1960's and 1970's as so called Guest worker, where some of the Romani Men married with German or Austrian Womans and got Children.[19]

In Crimea live several different Groups of Muslim Roma since the time of the Crimean Khanate, the majority of them speak Crimean Tatar language and take a Crimean Tatars Identity.[20]


The majority of Muslim Roma lives in:

References[change | change source]

  1. Marushiakova, Elena. "Roma Muslims in the Balkans".
  2. "BBC - Religions - Islam: Circumcision of boys".
  3. "ROMA GROUPS | Център за междуетнически диалог и толерантност АМАЛИПЕ".
  4. http://exclusion.pep.uoi.gr/ROMA/synedria/3/Politou.pdf
  5. https://scholarlypublications.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2721940/view
  6. https://scholarlypublications.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2721940/view
  7. Adamou, Evangelia; Arvaniti, Amalia (2014). "Greek Thrace Xoraxane Romane". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 44 (2): 223–231. doi:10.1017/S0025100313000376. S2CID 143602944.
  8. "Identity Geopolitics: Nation, Faith and the Roma of Western Thrace". 31 May 2021.
  9. Bánfai, Zsolt; Melegh, Béla I.; Sümegi, Katalin; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Miseta, Attila; Kásler, Miklós; Melegh, Béla (13 June 2019). "Revealing the Genetic Impact of the Ottoman Occupation on Ethnic Groups of East-Central Europe and on the Roma Population of the Area". Frontiers in Genetics. 10: 558. doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.00558. PMC 6585392. PMID 31263480.
  10. Cressy, David (2016). "Trouble with Gypsies in Early Modern England". The Historical Journal. 59: 45–70. doi:10.1017/S0018246X15000278. S2CID 162837563.
  11. Yılgür, Egemen (January 2021). "Turcoman Gypsies in the Balkans: Just a Preferred Identity or More?". Romani History and Culture Festschrift in Honour of Prof. Dr. Veselin Popov / Hristo Kyuchukov, Sofiya Zahova, Ian Duminica.
  12. "Turkish Roma from Bulgaria and their Migration to Poland by ERSTE Foundation - Issuu".
  13. "Gypsy vs. Didicoy - What's the difference? | Ask Difference".
  14. https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A3922/datastream/OBJ/view/Roma_uncovered.pdf
  15. https://web.archive.org/web/20120528222036/http://www.marston.co.uk/RSPP/LUPRSV013P02A00123.pdf
  16. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286766087_Ethnicity_class_and_politicisation_Immigrant_Roma_tobacco_workers_in_Turkey
  17. http://rombase.uni-graz.at/cd/data/ethn/groupsat/data/sepecides.en.pdf
  18. "Expulsion and Emigration of the Muslims from the Balkans".
  19. "Arlije [Rombase]".
  20. http://montescalearning.com/GLOBVillage/files/SMILE/MUS_49_Segmentation.pdf