Doi was born in Kumamoto on July 25, 1973. After graduating from Ozu High School, he joined Hitachi (later Kashiwa Reysol) in 1992. He battles with Ryuji Kato for goalkeeper position from 1997. However his opportunity to play decreased behind newcomer Yuta Minami from 1998. He moved to FC Tokyo in 2000. At 2004 J.League Cup, the club won the champions and he was selected MVP award. He played all matches from 2000 until round 32/34 in 2006 season. However his opportunity to play decreased behind Hitoshi Shiota in 2007. He moved to Tokyo Verdy with teammate Takashi Fukunishi in 2008. Although Doi played all matches in 2008 season, Verdy was relegated to J2 League. From 2011, his opportunity to play decreased behind Takahiro Shibasaki for injury in May 2011. In July 2012, Doi took regular position from Shibasaki. He retired end of 2012 season.