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Penybont Inn, Ystradgynlais - geograph.org.uk - 914472.jpg
Penybont Inn, Ystradgynlais
Population8,092 (2011 census)
Principal area
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townSWANSEA
Postcode districtSA9
Dialling code01639
FireMid and West Wales
UK Parliament
List of places

Ystradgynlais (Welsh: [ˌəstradˈɡənlais], English: /ˌʌstrədˈɡʌnls/) is a town in the south-west of the county of Powys, Wales. It is the second largest town in Powys, the largest being Newtown. It is situated on the banks of the River Tawe in the historic county of Brecknockshire.

The town was first recorded in 1372. The place-name "Ystradgynlais", meaning "vale of the river Cynlais" – may derive from cyn (a chisel) and glais (a stream). Cynlais may also be a personal name.

Ystradgynlais is one of the few areas within the historic county Brecknockshire that has a reasonably high proportion of speakers of the Welsh language. According to the 2001 census, more than half of all the Welsh-speakers within the Brecknock district live in Ystradgynlais.

Parc-yr-Orsedd in the town has a monument dedicated to fallen heroes of both World Wars from Ystradgynlais, Abercraf, Cwmtwrch, Cwmgiedd, Glyntawe and Coelbren.