Yuan dynasty

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Great Yuan
大元
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Khagan-ruled division of the Mongol Empire
Conquest dynasty in China
1271–1368
Yuan dynasty circa 1294
The situation of Goryeo was disputed[a]
Provinces of Yuan in 1330
Capital Khanbaliq (Beijing)
Languages Mongolian
Chinese
Religion Buddhism (Tibetan Buddhism as de facto state religion), Heaven worship, Shamanism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion, Chinese Nestorian Christianity, Roman Catholic Christianity, Judaism, Chinese Manichaeism, Islam, Legalism
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 •  1260–1294 Kublai Khan
 •  1333–1368 Toghon Temür
Historical era Postclassical Era
 •  Genghis Khan founds Mongol Empire Spring, 1206
 •  Formal proclamation of the Yuan dynasty 5 November 1271
 •  Battle of Xiangyang 1268–1273
 •  Conquest of Southern Song 4 February 1276
 •  Battle of Yamen 19 March 1279
 •  Red Turban Rebellion 1351–1368
 •  Fall of Khanbaliq 14 September 1368
 •  Formation of Northern Yuan dynasty 1368–1388
Area
 •  1310[2] 11,000,000 km2 (4,200,000 sq mi)
Population
 •  1290 est. 77,000,000 
 •  1293 est. 79,816,000 
 •  1330 est. 83,873,000 
 •  1350 est. 87,147,000 
Currency Predominantly Paper Currency (Chao), with a small amount of Chinese cash in use
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Song dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
Ming dynasty

The Yuan dynasty was a Mongol dynasty that ruled Mongolia and China from 1271 to 1368. Before this dynasty, China was ruled by the Song dynasty. After the Yuan dynasty, the Ming dynasty ruled China. Genghis Khan and his army of Mongols conquered many parts of China. His grandson Kublai Khan added more parts of China to his kingdom. He founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271.

In the year of 1206, Genghis Khan ruled the Mobi tribes(a part of a country) to establish the Mongol country at the Onon River. Jin was the main race in Mongolia, but Jin and Xia were in decline, Mongolia had attacked the Western Xia and Jin in August 1227, and Jin lost, so Mongolia occupied the whole north of China in March 1234.

In 1259, Möngke Khan died after the Song Yuan dynasty war. His brothers all wanted to be king. His fourth brother, Kublai, and his seventh brother, Ali Khan, fought to rule the Mobi tribes. And finally in 1264, Kublai won. Kublai used the book "Great is Diana of Qianyuan" to make the name "DaYuan" in 1271 and proclaimed the Yuan Dynasty. In 1276, Yuan ruled southern of Song, so yuan ruled the whole China in this year. In 1279, the Kublai subdued southern Song dynasty. The Yuan dynasty ruled China and brought different parts of China together that had been split since the late Tang dynasty.

For centuries, most of what the West knew about China came from the book by Marco Polo about his visit to Kublai's empire. The Yuan dynasty ended in 1368[3] when the Ming dynasty took control.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Tan Qixiang. "vol. 7". The Historical Atlas of China. SinoMaps Press. ISBN 9787503118449. 
  2. Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 499. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. 
  3. Wu, Annie (May 13, 2015). "The Yuan Dynasty". China Highlights. 

Notes

  1. The situation of Goryeo during Yuan dynasty was disputed. Some scholars (such as Tan Qixiang) regarded it as a country;[1] others regarded it as a part of Yuan.