Yugoslavia was a country in Europe, mostly in Balkan Peninsula, its meaning South Slavs deriving from Slavs who came from area what is now Poland in 7th century. It existed in three forms during 1918–2003. From 1918 until 1928 it was called the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. From 1928 until World War II it was the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After the WW 2 it was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with six republics, 2 autonomous provinces: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia and two autonomous provinces in Serbia: Vojvodina in the north, and Kosovo, next to Albania. North Kosovo always had majority Serbian, Christian population. It remains to this day under full Serbian/Belgrade defacto control. In 1991, came the independence of Slovenia, Croatia, in 1992, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, causing the end of the country. Serbia and Montenegro, were the last two republics in the Socialist Yugoslavia. In 1992, they formed a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). On 3 February 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In mid 2006, the state union ended when Montenegro decided to be independent, 55% of voters voted yes.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1945)[change | change source]
Yugoslavia came into existence in 1918 after World War I. For ten years it was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. It began using the name 'Yugoslavia' in 1929. The Kingdom was invaded by axis powers in 1941 and quickly fell during World War II. A Federal Democratic Republic was declared in 1943 with the King's approval, but the monarchy was abolished shortly after.
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-1992)[change | change source]
A People's republic was created in 1945 by a newly established communist government. It was ruled by Josip Tito from then until 1980. The country renamed itself SFR Yugoslavia in 1963. It was made up of six individual Socialist Republics: SR Croatia, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia and SR Slovenia. The SFR Yugoslavia was different to other socialist states of the Cold War, deciding to take a neutral stance. Yugoslavia was the only socialist state to have open borders and allowed Yugoslavs and tourists to freely move around the country. Yugoslavia also kept warm relations with the West. It was also an enemy of the Soviet Union after the Tito-Stalin split as Stalin considered him a traitor. In 1968 when socialist Czechoslovakia was being liberalised by its leader, the Soviet Union invaded it along with some other Warsaw Pact countries to assert order. Tito told the Czechoslovak leader that he was willing to fly to Prague to help him face the Soviets if needed.
The Yugoslav republics began turning against one another in the 1970s and 1980s. The breakup of Yugoslavia was caused by many things like nationalism, economic difficulty and ethnic problems. The Socialist state was dissolved in 1992 during the Yugoslav wars.
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003)[change | change source]
After the dissolution of the SFR Yugoslavia only Serbia and Montenegro were willing to remain in union. Serbia was more willing than Montenegro and the Serbians were shocked to find out that Montenegro was more in favour of terminating Yugoslavia. They renamed themselves the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. The country was led by the controversial statesman Slobodan Milosevic from 1997 until 2000. He was widely accused of having his opposition assassinated in 2000. Yugoslavia applied for UN membership in October 2000 and was granted the following month. The country was plagued with wars for most of its existence. It was bombed by NATO forces in 1999 during the Kosovo war. In the late 1990s separatism was growing in Yugoslavia and the country dropped the name Yugoslavia in favour of a state union in 2003. Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, formally ending the last remaining parts of Yugoslavia.
Now, Yugoslavia has been split up and made into these countries:
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Kosovo (recognized by some countries only, not UN recognized)
References[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yugoslavia|
- Ramet, Sabrina: The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918–2003. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006