Zand dynasty

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Zand dynasty
1751–1794
Flag of Zand dynasty
Flag of Zand Iran
(1751–1794)
Imperial Coat of Arms of Zand dynasty
Imperial Coat of Arms
The Zand dynasty at its zenith under Karim Khan Zand.
The Zand dynasty at its zenith under Karim Khan Zand.
CapitalShiraz
Official languagesPersian
GovernmentAbsolute Monarchy
Vakilol Ro'aya (Advocate of People) 
• 1751–1779
Karim Khan Zand (first)
• 1789–1794
Lotf Ali Khan Zand (last)
History 
• Established
1751
• Qajar conquest
1794
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Afsharid dynasty
Qajar dynasty

The Zand dynasty was an Iranian dynasty,[1] founded by Karim Khan Zand (1751–1779) that initially ruled southern and central Iran.

The dynasty, quickly came to expand to include much of the rest of contemporary Iran (except for the provinces of Balochistan and Khorasan) as well as parts of Iraq. The lands of present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia were controlled by khanates de jure part of the Zand dynasty, but the region was de facto autonomous.[2]

Origins[change | change source]

The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan Zand, member of the Zand tribe.

Some academians have accepted that the Zand tribe is of Lur origin.[3][4][5][6][7] Along with that, some academians accepts the Zand dynasty a Kurdish dynasty[8] and founder of the dynasty, Karim Khan a Kurd.[9][10]

References[change | change source]

  1. Yarshater, Ehsan. (2004). "IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 4)". Encyclopædia Iranica, "The Zand were a Lor tribe that lived in the vicinity of Malāyer in western Persia. [...] the Zands were the only Iranian dynasty (...)"
  2. Perry, John R. (2015). Karim Khan Zand: A History of Iran, 1747-1779. University of Chicago Press.
  3. Tucker 2020.
  4. Perry 2011, p. 561–564.
  5. Yarshater 2004, p. 234–238.
  6. Perry 2000.
  7. Perry 2002.
  8. Meho & Maglaughlin 2001, p. 308.
  9. Wilber 1981, p. 65.
  10. Jwaideh 2006, p. 17.

Sources[change | change source]

  • Tucker, Ermest (2020). "Karīm Khān Zand". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill. The Zands were a branch of the Laks, a subgroup of the northern Lurs, who spoke Luri, a Western Iranian language.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Perry, John R. (2011). "KARIM KHAN ZAND". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XV. Fasc. 6. pp. 561–564. The Zand were a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of the northern Lors (...)
  • Yarshater, Ehsan (2004). "IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 4)". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XIII. Fasc. 3. pp. 234–238. The Zand were a Lor tribe that lived in the vicinity of Malāyer in western Persia.
  • Perry, John R. (2000). "ZAND DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. The founder of the dynasty was Moḥammad Karim Khan b. Ināq Khan (...) of the Bagala branch of the Zand, a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of Lors (...)
  • Perry, J.R (2002). "Zand". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. & Heinrichs, W. P. (ed.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition. Brill. The Zand belonged to the Lakk group of Lurs (...){{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development. Syracuse University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7. (...) Kurdish leader, Karim Khan Zand (...)
  • Meho, Lokman I; Maglaughlin, Kelly L., eds. (2001). Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-313-31543-5. Karim Khan Zand, the founder of the Kurdish Zand dynasty (...)
  • Wilber, Donald Newton (1981) [1948]. Iran, Past and Present: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Princeton University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4008-5747-0. (...) Muhammad Karim Khan, a Kurd of the Zand tribe (...)