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Anaesthesia (or Anesthesia) is when a doctor can block pain, make you sleep, and keep you safe. That way, people can have surgery without feeling most of that pain. It makes surgery much safer and more comfortable.
More precisely, anaesthesia (or anesthesia) is 'sleep' and analgesia is the relief of pain. Modern anaesthesia is highly complex and often involves a combination of anaesthesia, analgesia and muscle relaxation to enable surgeons or proceduralists to do their part. These three tasks are known as the triad of anaesthesia.
If people are simply made to feel more pleasant, or less anxious, this is called sedation.