List of Byzantine Emperors

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This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. This list does not include many of the emperors that rules with someone else.

The title of all Emperors before Heraclius was Augustus, but other titles such as Dominus were also used. After Heraclius, the title was changed to the Greek Basileus. This title used to mean "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Augustus. The emperors of the 15th century called themselves "Basileus ton Hellinon" ("Emperor of the Greeks") but they were still "Roman" Emperors.

This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople.

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)[change | edit source]

1. St. Constantine I (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul; 272 - 337; ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius Chlorus
2. Constantius II (Flavius Iulius Constantius; 317 - 361; ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
3. Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus; 331 - 363; ruled 361 - 363) –son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic[change | edit source]

4. Jovian (Iovianus; 332 - 364; ruled 363 - 364) – soldier, restored Christianity

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)[change | edit source]

5. Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus; 321 - 375; ruled 364) – soldier
6. Valens (Flavius Iulius Valens; 328 - 378; ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
7. Gratian (Flavius Gratianus; 359 - 383; ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
8. Theodosius I (Flavius Gratianus; 346 - 395; ruled 379 - 395) – soldier
9. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius; 377 - 408; ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I, brother of Honorius
10. Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius; 401 - 450; ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
11. Pulcheria (Aelia Purcheria; 399 – 453; ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II
12. Marcian (Flavius Marcianus; 392 - 457; ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death

Leonid dynasty (457-518)[change | edit source]

13. Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
14. Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
15. Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I
16. Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored
17. Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – son-in-law of Leo I

Justinian dynasty (518-602)[change | edit source]

18. Justin I (Flavius Iustinius; 450 - 527; ruled 518 - 527)
19. Justinian I the Great (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; 482 - 565; ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I
20. Justin II (Flavius Iustinius Iunior; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
21. Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – adopted by Justin II
22. Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

Non-dynastic[change | edit source]

23. Phocas (Flavius Phocas; ? - 610; ruled 602 - 610)

Heraclian dynasty (610-695)[change | edit source]

24. Heraclius (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641)
25. Constantine III (Heraclius Constantine) (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heraklonas
26. Heraklonas (Constantine Heraclius)(626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Herakleios
27. Constans II (Herakleios, later Constantine, called the Bearded) (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III
28. Mezezius (668 - 669)
29. Constantine IV (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
30. Justinian II the Slit-nosed (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV

Non-dynastic (695-705)[change | edit source]

31. Leontios (ruled 695 - 698)
32. Tiberios III (ruled 698 - 705)

Heraclian dynasty (705-711)[change | edit source]

Non-dynastic (711-717)[change | edit source]

33. Philippikos Bardanes (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier
34. Anastasios II ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715)
35. Theodosios III (ruled 715 - 717)

Isaurian dynasty (717-802)[change | edit source]

36. Leo III the Isaurian (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741)
37. Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (718 - 775, ruled 741) – son of Leo III
38. Artabasdus the Icon-lover (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's son-in-law
39. Leo IV the Khazar (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
40. Constantine VI the Blinded (771 - 797 or 805, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV
41. Irene the Athenian (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI

Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)[change | edit source]

42. Nikephoros I ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811)
43. Staurakios ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I
44. Michael I Rangabe (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I

Non-dynastic[change | edit source]

45. Leo V the Armenian (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820)

Phrygian dynasty (820-867)[change | edit source]

46. Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – son-in-law of Constantine VI
47. Theophilos (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
48. Theodora (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus
49. Michael III the Drunkard (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilos

Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)[change | edit source]

50. Basil I the Macedonian (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow
51. Leo VI the Wise (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912)
52. Alexander (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I
53. Constantine VII the Purple-born (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
54. Romanos I Lekapenos (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII
55. Romanos II the Purple-born (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
56. Nikephoros II Phokas (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – married Romanos II's widow
57. John I Tzimiskes (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II
58. Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
59. Constantine VIII (960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanos II
60. Zoe (c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
61. Romanos III Argyros (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – Zoe's first husband
62. Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
63. Michael V the Caulker (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
64. Theodora (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
65. Constantine IX Monomachos (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband

Non-dynastic[change | edit source]

66. Michael VI the General (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora

Komnenid dynasty[change | edit source]

67. Isaac I Komnenos (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)[change | edit source]

68. Constantine X Doukas (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067)
69. Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X
70. Romanos IV Diogenes (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow
71. Nikephoros III Botaneiates (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081)

Comnenid dynasty (restored, 1081-1185)[change | edit source]

72. Alexios I Komnenos (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece
73. John II Komnenos the Handsome (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexios I
74. Manuel I Komnenos the Great (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
75. Alexios II Komnenos (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I
76. Andronikos I Komnenos (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexios II's widow

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)[change | edit source]

77. Isaac II Angelos (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexios I
78. Alexios III Angelos (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II
79. Alexios IV Angelos (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II
80. Nikolaos Kanabos (ruled 1204)
81. Alexios V Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed ( (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III

Laskarid dynasty (in exile, Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261)[change | edit source]

82. Constantine Laskaris (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
83. Theodore I Laskaris (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
84. John III Doukas Vatatzes (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I
85. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
86. John IV Doukas Laskaris (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)[change | edit source]

At around this time the emperors began using the title Βασιλευς Βασιλεων Βασιλευων Βασιλευσιν, that is, King of Kings, ruling over Kings.[1]

87. Michael VIII Palaiologos (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – great-grandson of Alexios III Angelos
88. Andronikos II Palaiologos the Elder (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII
89. Andronikos III Palaiologos the Younger (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronikos II
90. John V Palaiologos (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronikos III
91. John VI Kantakouzenos (1295 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V
92. Andronikos IV Palaiologos (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V
93. John VII Palaiologos (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronikos IV
94. Manuel II Palaiologos (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V
95. John VIII Palaiologos (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
96. Constantine XI Palaiologos Dragases (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople

Ottomans[change | edit source]

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Kaisar; his successors continued this claim. See Ottomans for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.

Pszoniaks[change | edit source]

97. Marian Joniak (1633-1699)

Palaiologan Dynasty (in exile)[change | edit source]

Other pages[change | edit source]