Philippe, Duke of Orléans

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Philippe of France
Duke of Orléans
Tenure 10 May 1661 – 9 June 1701
Spouse Henrietta of England
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
Issue
Marie Louise, Queen of Spain
Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia
Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine
Full name
Philippe de France
House House of Orléans
House of Bourbon
Father Louis XIII of France
Mother Anne of Austria
Born 21 September 1640(1640-09-21)
Saint Germain en Laye, France
Died 9 June 1701(1701-06-09) (aged 60)
Château de Saint-Cloud, France
Burial 21 June 1701
Royal Basilica of Saint Denis, France
Signature

Philippe of France, Son of France, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701) was the youngest son of Louis XIII of France and his queen consort Anne of Austria. His older brother was the famous Louis XIV, le roi soleil.

Biography[change | edit source]

Philippe de France was born at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans. During the reign of his brother he was known simply as Monsieur. Openly homosexual, he married twice: firstly to Henrietta of England, Minette, sister of Charles II of England. During their marriage, Philippe met and began a relationship with the Chevalier de Lorraine who was the great love of Philippe's life, their long relationship beginning in 1668. After the alleged poisoning of Minette, Philippe married again in 1671 to Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Liselotte.

He was the founder of the House of Orléans, a cadet branch of the ruling House of Bourbon, and thus the direct ancestor of Louis Philippe I, who ruled France from 1830 till 1848 in the July Monarchy. Through the children of both of his marriages Philippe became an ancestor of most modern-day Roman Catholic royals, giving him the nickname of "the grandfather of Europe". Philippe's other legacies include his decisive victory at the Battle of Cassel in 1677. Through careful personal administration, Philippe greatly augmented his fortune and thus the fortune of the House of Orléans.

Issue[change | edit source]

First marriage[change | edit source]

Married Henrietta of England, daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France, on 31 March 1661, at the Palais Royal. The couple had three children:

  1. Marie Louise d'Orléans (26 March 1662 – 12 February 1689) married Charles II of Spain, no issue;
  2. Philippe Charles d'Orléans, Duke of Valois (16 July 1664 – 8 December 1666) died in infancy;
  3. Stillborn daughter (9 July 1665);
  4. Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August 1669 – 26 August 1728) married Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and had issue;

Second marriage[change | edit source]

Married Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, on 16 November 1671 at Châlons. The couple had three children:

  1. Alexandre Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Valois (2 June 1673 – 16 March 1676) died in infancy;
  2. Philippe d'Orléans (2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723) married Françoise Marie de Bourbon, Légitimée de France and had issue;
  3. Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (13 September 1676 – 24 December 1744) married Léopold of Lorraine, Duke of Lorraine and had issue.

Titles, styles, honours and arms[change | edit source]

Titles and styles[change | edit source]

  • 21 September 1640 – 14 May 1643 His Royal Highness The Duke of Anjou, Child of France.
  • 14 May 1643 – 2 February 1660 His Royal Highness Monsieur, Duke of Anjou.
  • 2 February 1660 – 9 June 1701 His Royal Highness Monsieur, Duke of Orléans.

Other websites[change | edit source]

Media related to Philippe, Duke of Orléans at Wikimedia Commons