List of Armenian monarchs and presidents

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This list is a list of Armenian monarchs

Antiquity[change | change source]

No. Name Years Portrait or couinage Notes House
1 Orontes III 321–260 BC
  • First king from Orontid dynasty
2 Sames I 260–243 BC
  • Son of Orontes III(?)
  • Also king of Sophene and Commagene
3 Arsames I 243–228 BC
  • Son of Sames I(?)
  • Also king of Sophene and Commagene
4 Xerxes I 228–212 BC
  • Son of Arsames I
  • Also king of Sophene and Commagene
5 Orontes IV 212–200 BC
  • Son of Arsames I(?)
6 Artaxias I 189–160 BC
  • Founder of Artaxiad dynasty
  • Probably descended from Orontids
7 Artavasdes I 160 BC–115 BC
  • Son of Artaxias I
8 Tigranes I 120–95 BC(?)
  • Son of Artavasdes I
  • Historians, such as Manandian, Lang and Adalian consider him a real figure but differ or are uncertain on the exact dates of his reign.
9 Tigranes II the Great 95–55 BC[1]
  • Son of Artavasdes I or Tigranes I
  • At one time, the domains of Tigranes the Great stretched from the shores of the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean, from Mesopotamia up to the Pontic Alps.[2]
10 Artavasdes II 55–34 BC
  • Son of Tigranes the Great
11 Artaxias II 34 BC–20 BC
  • Son of Artavesdes II
12 Tigranes III 20 BC–8 BC
13 Erato 8 BC–2 AD
  • Son and daughter of Tigranes III
Tigranes IV
14 Ariobarzanes II 2–4
  • Previously king of Media Atropatene
15 Artavasdes IV 4–6
16 Erato 6–12
  • Second co-reign
Tigranes V
17 Vovones I 12–18
  • Previously king of Parthian Empire
  • First Arsacid king
18 Artaxias III 18–34
19 Arsaces I 34–35
  • Son of the Artabanus II, ruler of Parthian Empire
20 Orodes I 35–35
  • First reign
  • Son of the Artabanus II, ruler of Parthian Empire
21 Mithridates I 35–37
  • First reign
22 Orodes I 37–42
  • Second reign
23 Mithridates I 42–51
  • Second reign
24 Rhadamistus 51–53
  • First reign
25 Tiridates I 53–53
  • First reign
  • Son of the Vovones II, ruler of Parthian Empire
26 Rhadamistus 54–55
  • Second reign
27 Tiridates I 55–88
  • Second reign, the Arsacid dynasty came to power in full
28 Sanatruk I 88–110
  • Son of Tiridates I(?)
29 Axidares I 110–113
  • Son of Pacorus II, king of Parthian Empire
30 Parthamasiris I 113–114
31 Vologases I 118–140
  • Son of Sanatruk
32 Sohaemus 141–161
  • First reign
33 Bakur I 161–163
  • Son of Vologases IV king of Parthian Empire
34 Sohaemus 163–180
  • Second reign
35 Vologases II 180–191
  • Son of Vologases IV, king of Parthian Empire
  • Later king of the Parthian Empire
36 Khosrov I 191–217
  • Son of Vologases II
37 Tiridates II 217–252
  • Son of Khosrov I
38 Hormizd-Ardashir 252–270
  • Son of the Sasanian king Shapur I; made king of Armenia by his father after the Sasanians conquered the kingdom, later king of the Sasanian Empire as Hormizd I.
39 Narseh 270–280
  • Brother of Hormizd-Ardashir
  • Later king of the Sasanian Empire
40 280–287
Khosrov II 280–287
  • Son of Tiridates II
  • In western Armenia, enthroned by the Romans after Narseh ceded parts of western Armenia to Emperor Probus.
41 Narseh 287–293
Tiridates (III) 287–293
  • Brother of Khosrov II
  • Initially king of only western Armenia but granted the rest of the kingdom as well after Narseh became king of the Sasanian Empire.
42 293–298
43 Tiridates III (or IV) 298–330
  • Son of Khosrov II
  • In 301, Tiridates proclaimed Christianity as the state religion of Armenia, making the Armenian kingdom the first state to embrace Christianity officially.
44 Khosrov III 330–339
  • Son of Tiridates III (or IV)
45 Tigranes VII 339–350
  • Son of Khosrov III
46 Arshak II 350–368
  • Son of Tigranes VII
47 Pap 370–375
  • Son of Arshak II
48 Varazdat I 375–378
  • Nephew of Pap (perhaps son of Pap's younger brother Tiridates)
The Sasanians appointed their own Armenian king (Khosrov IV) in 384, against the Roman-supported Arshak III, leading Armenia to becoming informally divided under the two kings. Upon the death of the Roman-supported Arshak III in 389, Emperor Theodosius I, unable to appoint another king, incorporated the region into the Roman Empire. Thus, the Sasanian-supported kings became the sole kings of Armenia.
49 Vramshapuh 389–414
  • Son of Varazdat(?)
50 Shapur 418–422
  • Son of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I, later king of the Sasanian Empire as Shapur IV
51 Artaxias IV 422–428[3]
  • Son of Vramshapuh
  • The last king, in 428, Armenian nobles petitioned Bahram V to depose Artaxias IV (r. 422); Bahram V (r. 420–438) abolished the Kingdom of Armenia and appointed Veh Mihr Shapur as marzban (governor of a frontier province, "margrave") of the country, which marked the start of a new era known as the Marzbānate period.

Medieval[change | change source]

Non-independent rulers of Armenia[change | change source]

The rulers of Armenia under the Sasanians (as province, known as the Persarmenia), Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid (as autonomous, known as the Arminiya) caliphates.

Marzbāns of Armenia under Sasanian Empire
No. Name Years Portrait or couinage Notes House
1 Veh Mihr Shapur 428–442
Iranian grandee, nominated by Bahram V.
2 Vasak Swni 442–452
Armenian nobleman, nominated by Yazdgerd II.
3 Adhur Hormizd 451–465
Iranian grandee, nominated by Yazdgerd II.
4 Adhur Gushnasp 465–482
Iranian grandee, nominated by Peroz I.
5 Sahak II Bagratuni 481–482
Armenian nobleman, elected by the rebellious Armenian nobles. Bagratuni
6 Shapur Mihran 482–482
Iranian millitary occupation
7 Vahan I Mamikonian 482–483 Armenian nobleman, head of provisional government. Mamikonian
8 Zarmihr Karen 483–483
Iranian military occupation.
9 Shapur of Ray 483–484
Iranian grandee, nominated by Peroz I. Cyril Toumanoff suggests a marzpan named Andigan for the same period.
10 Vahan I Mamikonian 484–505/510 Armenian nobleman, second rule, nominated by Peroz I. Mamikonian
11 Vard Mamikonian 505–509 or 510–514
Armenian nobleman, brother of Vahan I, recognized as marzpan by Kavadh I.
Several Iranian marzpans perses 11 years
12 Mjej I Gnuni 518–548
Armenian noble, mentioned by Cyril Toumanoff and Gérard Dédéyan, but not included by René Grousset. Gnuni
13 Gushnasp Bahram 548–552 or 552–554
Iranian nobleman
14 Tan-Shapur 552–560 or 554–560
15 Varazdat 560–564
16 Chihor-Vishnasp 564–572
17 Vardan III Mamikonian 572–573
Armenian noble, leader of anti-Iranian rebellion. Mamikonian
18 Golon Mihran 572–574
Iranian general tasked by Khosrau I with subduing the revolt. Cyril Toumanoff substitutes him and Vardan with Vardan-Gushnasp.
19 Vardan III Mamikonian 573–577
Armenian noble, under Byzantine protectorate.
For the same period, Krikor Jacob Basmadjian a Cyril Toumanoff have Philip, prince of Syunik.
20 Tamkhosrau 577–580
Iranian grandee, nominated by Khosrau I.
21 Varaz Vzur 580–581
Iranian grandee, nominated by Hormizd IV
22 Pahlav 581–582/588
23 Frahat 582/588–588/589
24 Hrartin 588/589–590
25 Musel II Mamikonian 590–591
Armenian noble, installed by the Byzantines. Bagratuni
26 Vindatakan 592–605
These five marzpans are mentioned by Cyril Toumanoff.
27 Smbat IV Bagratuni 604–611 or 616
Armenian noble, Christian Settipani records him as marzpan from 599 to 607. He is not mentioned as marzpan by Toumanoff. René Grousset holds that Khosrau II named him marzpan following his victories in Hyrcania, ca. 604, and adds that he possibly continued in office until his death in 616-617. However, he also mentions three other marzpans over the same period (see following). Bagratuni
28 Shahrayeanpet 611–613 Marzpan at Dvin, in eastern Armenia, along with Shahin Vahmanzadegan as pahghospan in western (former Byzantine) Armenia
29 Parshenazdat 613–613
Iranian grandee, nominated by Khosrau II.
30 Namdar-Gushnasp 616–619
31 Shahraplakan 619–624
32 Rotshvehan 624–627
33 Varaztirots II Bagratuni ca. 628
Armenian nobleman, named marzpan by Kavadh II for the portions of Armenia remaining under Iranian rule. Following the onset of the Muslim conquest of Iran, Varaztirots aligned himself with the Byzantines. Bagratuni
34 Mjej II Gnuni 630–635
Armenian nobleman, named governor of Armenia by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius. Gnuni
35 David Saharuni 635–638
Armenian nobleman, he murdered Mjej and proclaimed himself governor. He was recognized by Heraclius, who named him kouropalates and ishkhan of Armenia. Saharuni
36 Theodore Rshtuni 643–645
Armenian nobleman, following the complete collapse of Iran, he was named Prince of Armenia by the Byzantines, but died before being formally invested Rshtuni
37 Varaztirots II Bagratuni 645/646
Presidental princes of Armenia under Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasids
1 Theodore Rshtuni 650–655
Various Armenian noblemans Rshtuni
2 Hamazasp II Mamikonian 655–658
3 Gregory I Mamikonian 662–684/85
4 Ashot II Bagratuni 686–690
5 Nerses Kamsarakan 689–691
6 Smbat VI Bagratuni 691–711
7 Ashot III Bagratuni 732–748
8 Gregory II Mamikonian 748–750
9 Sahak VII Bagratuni 755–761
10 Smbat VII Bagratuni 761–775
11 Ashot IV Bagratuni 806–826
12 Bagrat II Bagratuni 830–851
13 Ashot V Bagratuni 862–884 Armenian nobleman, later king of Bagratuni kingdom of Armenia

Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia[change | change source]

The Bagratid Armenia was an independent Armenian state established by Ashot I Bagratuni of the Bagratuni dynasty in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule.

Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia
No. Name Years Portrait or couinage House Notes
1 Ashot I the Great 884[4]–890 Bagratuni
  • Former presidental prince of Armenia
2 Smbat I 890–914[4]
  • Son of Ashot the Great
3 Ashot II 914–928
  • Son of Smbat I
4 Abas I 928–952[4]
5 Ashot III the Merciful 953–977
  • Son of Abas I
  • During the his reign, Ani became the kingdom's capital and grew into a thriving economic and cultural center.
6 Smbat II 977–989[5]
  • Son of Ashot III
7 Gagik I 989–1020[5]
8 Hovhannes-Smbat III 1020–1040
  • Son of Gagik I
  • In Ani
Ashot IV 1021–1039
  • Son of Gagik I
  • In Talin
9 Gagik II 1041–1045[6]
  • Son of Ashot IV
  • Last king, he died in exile

Variorous Armenian kingdoms[change | change source]

Kingdom of Kars (962/3–1064)

  • Mushegh (962/3[5]–984) son of Abas I of Armenia
  • Abas I (984–1029)
  • Gagik-Abas II (1029–1064) he claimed the position of king of all Armenia following the collapse of the main Bagratid kingdom in 1045.

The kingdom centered on now northeastern Turkey (Kars Province) and northwestern Armenia.

Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908–1021)

  • Gagik I Ardsruni (908–943[4])
  • Derenik-Ashot Adrsruni (943–958[5])
  • Abusahl-Hamazasp (958–968[5])
  • Ashot-Sahak (969/972–991)
  • Gurgen-Khachik (991–1003)
  • Seneqerim-Hovhannes (1003–1021)

The kingdom centered on Lake Van, located in what is now eastern Turkey (in Van Province) and partially northwestern Iran.

Kingdom of Syunik (970–1170)

  • Smbat II (970–998[5])
  • Vasak VI (998–1019[5])
  • Smbat III (1019–1044)
  • Grigor I (1044–1084)
  • Senekerim Sevadian (1084–1094)
  • Grigor II (1094–1166)
  • Hasan of Gerakar (1166–1170) son-in-law of Grigor II

The kingdom centered in Syunik province of now Armenia.

Kingdom of Lori (982–1145)

  • Gurgen I (982[5]–989)
  • David I (989–1046/1048)
  • Gurgen II (1046/1048–1081/1089)
  • David II and Abas (1089–1145)

The kingdom was located on the territories of modern-day northern Armenia, partially northwestern Azerbaijan and southern Georgia.

The five melikdoms of Karabakh

In addition, five Armenian meliks ruled the mountainous Karabakh from the 14th to the 19th centuries.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia[change | change source]

The Armenian Kingdom (starting of an principality) of Cilicia was an Armenian state formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Turcoman invasion of the Armenia. Located outside the Armenian Highlands and distinct from the Kingdom of Armenia of antiquity or medieval.

Armenian Principality of Cilicia
No. Prince Years Portrait or couinage Notes House
1 Ruben I 1080–1095
  • First Armenian prince of Cilicia
  • He declared the independence of Cilicia from the Byzantine Empire, thus formally founding the beginning of Armenian rule there.
2 Constantine I 1095–1099
  • Son of Ruben I
3 Thoros I 1100/2–1129[7]
  • Son of Constantine I
4 Leo I 1129[7]–1138
5 Thoros II the Great 1145–1169
  • Son of Leo I
  • He successfully ousted the Byzantine garrisons from Pardzerpert, Vahka, Sis, Anazarbus, Adana, Mamistra and Tarsus.
6 Ruben II 1169–1170
  • Son of Thoros II
7 Mleh I 1170–1175
  • Son of Leo I
8 Ruben III 1175–1186/7[8]
  • Grandson of Leo I, son of Stephen
9 Leo II 1186/7[8]–1198
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1198–1375)
No. King Years Portrait or couinage Notes House
(9) Leo I (II) 1199–1219
  • In 1198, with the crowning of Leo I, King of Armenia of the Rubenid dynasty, Cilician Armenia became a kingdom.
10 Isabella 1219–1226
  • Daughter of Leo I
  • Queen regnant and later co-ruler
11 1226–1253
Hethum I 1226–1253
  • First king from Hethumids
  • Co-ruler and later only king
12 1253–1270
13 Leo II (III) 1268–1289[9]
  • Son of Hethum I
14 Hethum II 1289–1293
  • Son of Leo II
  • First reign
15 Thoros III 1293–1294
  • Son of Leo II
16 Hethum II 1294–1296
  • Second reign
17 Smbat IV 1296–1298
  • Son of Leo II
18 Constantine I (II) 1298–1299
19 Hethum II 1299–1305
  • Third reign
20 Leo III (IV) 1305–1308
  • Son of Thoros III
21 Oshin 1308–1320
  • Son of Leo III
22 Leo IV (V) 1320–1341[10]
  • Son of Oshin
  • During this period, the kingdom was much harassed by Mamluks and Mongols.
23 Constantine II (IV) 1342–1344
  • First king from crusader-dynasty of Lusignan
24 Constantine III (V) 1344–1362
  • He was the second cousin of Constantine II.
25 Constantine IV (VI) 1362–1373
26 Leo V (VI) 1374–1375[11]
  • The last king then claimed the throne after losing power to the throne

Turcoman kings of Armenia[change | change source]

In the decades following the Battle of Manzikert, one of the Turcoman vassal dynasties of the Seljuk Turks gained control of the city of Ahlat in the former Armenian heartland. These Turcoman emirs took the used title of Shah-i Armen (ie. "King of the Armenians").

No. Name Years Portrait or couinage House Notes
1 Sökmen 1100–1111
  • Turcoman military commander, former slave amir in the service of Seljuks.
2 Zahireddin Ibrahim 1111–1127
3 Ahmed 1127
4 Sökmen II 1128–1185

Qara Qoyunlu[change | change source]

The title Shah-i Armen was temporarily revived in the 15th century under the rule of the Turcoman Qara Qoyunlu during the rule of Qara Iskandar.

Iskandar sought to cultivate the Armenian population, especially the feudal lords and clergy. To reinforce this policy, he took the title "Shah-i Armen," King of the Armenians.[12]

No. Name Years Portrait or couinage House Notes
1 Iskandar[12] or Qara Iskandar 1420–1436 Qara Qoyunlu
  • 4th ruler of Qara Qoyunlu
  • Son of Qara Yusuf

References[change | change source]

  1. Adalian 2010, p. xxix.
  2. Lang 1983, p. 516.
  3. Adalian 2010, p. xxxiii.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Adalian 2010, p. xxxvi.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Adalian 2010, p. xxxvii.
  6. Adalian 2010, p. xxxviii.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Adalian 2010, p. xxxix.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Adalian 2010, p. xi.
  9. Adalian 2010, p. xli.
  10. Adalian 2010, p. xlli.
  11. Adalian 2010, p. xlii.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Kouymjian 1997, p. 5.

Sources[change | change source]

  • Lang, David M. (1983). "Iran, Armenia and Georgia". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanid Periods. Cambridge University Press. p. 516. ISBN 0-521-20092-X.
  • Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7450-3.
  • Kouymjian, Dickran (1997). "Armenia from the Fall of the Cilician Kingdom (1375) to the Forced Emigration under Shah Abbas (1604)". In Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.). The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century. Vol. 2. New York: St. Martin Press. ISBN 9780312101688.