North Waziristan Agency
North Waziristan (Urdu: شمالی وزیرستان) is the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering some 11 585 km² (4,473 mi²). It comprises the area west and south-west of Peshawar between the Tochi river to the north and the Gomal river to the south, forming part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). Miran Shah is capital of North Waziristan and (FATA). The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa lies immediately to the east. The region was an independent tribal territory from 1893, remaining outside of the British empire and Afghanistan. Tribal raiding into British territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. The region became part of Pakistan on independence in 1947.