Psychedelic mushroom

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Psilocybe semilanceata
Dried psilocybe mushrooms. (Notice that the stems are blue at the ends)

Psilocybin mushrooms, also known as psychedelic or magic mushrooms, contain the alkaloid psilocybin and other related compounds. Psilocybin is a mind-altering substance. It changes the brain to an altered state of mind, or a different state of consciousness. This can lead to effects like hallucinations or visions. They can also be used for medical purposes to treat cluster headaches,[1] obsessive-compulsive disorder,[2] and certain kinds of depression.[3]

Some people who use them later have psychological problems.

Psilocybin can kill in extremely high doses. The LD50 of psilocybin is 280 mg/kg for rats, this is about 1.5 times that of caffeine. In normal psychedelic mushrooms, psilocybin makes up about 1% of their weight. Therefore, nearly 1.7 kilograms of dried mushrooms, or 17 kilograms of fresh mushrooms, would be required for a 60 kg person to reach the 280 mg/kg LD50 rate of rats.

Psilocybin mushrooms have likely been used since prehistoric times and may have been depicted in rock art.[4] Many cultures have used these mushrooms in religious rites. Psychedelic mushrooms have been used by native peoples of Mesoamerica for religious communion and healing. Catholic missionaries were against the use of magic mushrooms. In Modern society, they are used recreationally for their psychedelic effects and their medical use in psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy is studied[5][6] in the treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer[7], the treatment of depression[8] and to help quitting smoking.[9]

The function of compounds like this in nature is they reduce the likelihood of the mushroom being eaten before its spores have been scattered. It is a defence against herbivory.

References[change | change source]

  1. Clusterbusters. "Psilocybin mushrooms" (html). Retrieved 2006-12-01.
  2. "Safety, tolerability and efficacy of Psilocybin in 9 Patients with obsessive-compulsive-disorder" (PDF). University of Washington.
  3. "FDA approves magic mushrooms depression drug trial". Newsweek. 2018-08-23. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  4. Samorini, Giorgio (1992). "The oldest Representations of Hallucinogenic Mushrooms in the World (Sahara Desert, 9000-7000 B.P.)". Integration vol. 2/3, pp: pp. 69-78. http://samorini.it/doc1/sam/sah_int.htm. 
  5. Schenberg*, Eduardo Ekman (2018). "Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: A Paradigm Shift in Psychiatric Research and Development". frontiers in Pharmacology.
  6. "The New Science of Psychedelics". Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  7. Ross, Stephen; Bossis, Anthony; Guss, Jeffrey; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Malone, Tara; Cohen, Barry; Mennenga, Sarah E; Belser, Alexander et al. (2016-11-30). "Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial" (in en). Journal of Psychopharmacology 30 (12): 1165–1180. doi:10.1177/0269881116675512. ISSN 0269-8811. PMC PMC5367551. PMID 27909164. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0269881116675512. 
  8. Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Roseman, Leor; Bolstridge, Mark; Demetriou, Lysia; Pannekoek, J Nienke; Wall, Matthew B; Tanner, Mark; Kaelen, Mendel et al. (2017-10-13). "Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms" (in En). Scientific Reports 7 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13282-7. ISSN 2045-2322. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-13282-7. 
  9. "Hallucinogen in 'magic mushrooms' helps longtime smokers quit in Hopkins trial". The Hub. 2014-09-11. Retrieved 2018-09-30.