Alice Paul

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Alice Paul in 1901.

Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist and activist. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage. Her work resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.[1]

Paul was the original author of a proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution in 1923.[2] The ERA would not get to the Senate for a vote until 1972. That year, it was approved by the Senate and submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. Approval by 38 states was required to ratify the amendment. Not enough states — only 35 — voted in favor before the deadline. However, people still work to have the states pass the ERA passed by Congress in the 1970s. Other people are woking to add a new equality amendment to the US Constitution. Also, almost half of the U.S. states have adopted the ERA into their state constitutions.[3]

References[change | edit source]

  1. Jean H. Baker "Placards at the White House," American Heritage, Winter 2010.
  2. "Alice Paul Biography.". Lakewood Public Library: Women in History. http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/paul-ali.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-01.
  3. "ERA Charm Bracelet". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=492. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  • Adams, Katherine H. and Michael L. Keene. Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign. University of Illinois Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-252-07471-4
  • Walton, Mary. A Woman's Crusade: Alice Paul and the Battle for the Ballot. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. ISBN 978-0-230-61175-7

Other websites[change | edit source]