Bufonidae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
True toads
Temporal range: 57–0Ma
Late Paleocene – Recent[1]
Common Toad or European Toad, Bufo bufo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Gray, 1825
Genera
Over 35 (see text)
Distribution of Bufonidae (in black)

Bufonidae is a family of the "true toads". The family has 35 genus. The Bufonidae toads are found almost everywhere and are well known. True toads can be found on every continent except Australia and Antarctica. They can be found in rain forest. They lay their eggs in strings. They will hatch and become tadpoles. However, the genus Nectophrynoides, their young will not develop from a tadpole stage.[1]

True toads do not have any tooth. Their skin looks like warts. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands has alkaloid poison. They get this type of poison from stress. They have also other toxins such as Bufotoxin. Male toads has a Bidder's organ. The organ will become an active ovary if conditions are right. They will then become a female.

Taxonomy[change | change source]

Bufonidae has about 500 species among 37 genus.

Genus Latin Name and Author Common Name Species
Adenomus Cope, 1861
3
Altiphrynoides Dubois, 1987 Ethiopian Toads
2
Amietophrynus Frost et al., 2006
38
Andinophryne Hoogmoed, 1985 Andes Toads
3
Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 Stream Toads
25
Atelopus Duméril & Bibron, 1841 Stubfoot Toads
82
Bufo Laurenti, 1768 Toads
150
Bufoides Pillai & Yazdani, 1973 Mawblang Toads
1
Capensibufo Grandison, 1980 Cape Toads
2
Churamiti Channing & Stanley, 2002
1
Crepidophryne Cope, 1889 Cerro Utyum Toads
3
Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada, 1871 Tree Toads
7
Didynamipus Andersson, 1903 Four-digit Toads
1
Duttaphrynus Frost et al., 2006
6
Epidalea Cope, 1864 Natterjack Toads
1
Frostius Cannatella, 1986 Frost's Toads
2
Ingerophrynus Frost et al., 2006
11
Laurentophryne Tihen, 1960 Parkers Tree Toads
1
Leptophryne Fitzinger, 1843 Indonesia Tree Toads
2
Melanophryniscus Gallardo, 1961 South American Redbelly Toads
20
Mertensophryne Tihen, 1960 Snouted Frogs
20
Metaphryniscus Señaris, Ayarzagüena & Gorzula, 1994
1
Nectophryne Buchholz & Peters, 1875 African Tree Toads
2
Nectophrynoides Noble, 1926 African Live-bearing Toads
13
Nimbaphrynoides Dubois, 1987 Nimba Toads
2
Oreophrynella Boulenger, 1895 Bush Toads
8
Osornophryne Ruiz-Carranza & Hernández-Camacho, 1976 Plump Toads
6
Parapelophryne Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2003
1
Pedostibes Günther, 1876 Asian Tree Toads
6
Pelophryne Barbour, 1938 Flathead Toads
9
Pseudepidalea Frost, et. al. 2006
16
Pseudobufo Tschudi, 1838 False Toads
1
Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 Beaked Toads
72
Schismaderma Smith, 1849 African Split-skin Toads
1
Truebella Graybeal & Cannatella, 1995
2
Werneria Poche, 1903 Smalltongue Toads
6
Wolterstorffina Mertens, 1939 Wolterstorff Toads
3

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Zweifel, Richard G. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G.. ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-12-178560-2 .

Books[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]