Carbon monoxide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide 2D.svg
Carbon-monoxide-3D-vdW.png
Other names Carbon monooxide
Carbonous oxide
Carbon(II) oxide
Carbonyl
Identifiers
CAS number 630-08-0
PubChem 281
EC number 211-128-3
KEGG D09706
MeSH Carbon+monoxide
ChEBI CHEBI:17245
RTECS number FG3500000
SMILES [C-]#[O+]
Beilstein Reference 3587264
Gmelin Reference 421
Properties
Molecular formula CO
Molar mass 28.010 g mol−1
Appearance colourless, odorless gas
Density 0.789 g mL−1, liquid
1.250 g L−1 at 0 °C, 1 atm
1.145 g L−1 at 25 °C, 1 atm
Melting point

−205 °C, 68 K, -337 °F

Boiling point

−191.5 °C, 82 K, -313 °F

Solubility in water 2.6 mg/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility soluble in chloroform, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, ammonium hydroxide
Dipole moment 0.112 D
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 0023
EU classification Highly flammable (F+)
Very toxic (T+)
EU Index 006-001-00-2
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
4
2
 
R-phrases R61 Template:R12 Template:R26 R48/23
S-phrases S53 S45
Flash point −191 °C
Autoignition
temperature
609 °C
Related compounds
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Carbon monoxide, also known as coal gas, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It consists of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. It is made when carbon compounds burn and there is not enough oxygen. It is a good fuel and burns in air with a blue flame, making carbon dioxide. It is very toxic, but it is useful for modern technology as well.

The most important use for carbon monoxide in industry is making iron from iron ore. The carbon monoxide takes the oxygen from the iron ore when heated in a large oven called a blast furnace. Liquid metal iron is left behind. The carbon monoxide turns into carbon dioxide.

Carbon monoxide can accidentally form when there are too little air to burn all the fuel into carbon dioxide. Such situation may happen if the oven shutters are closed too early or if a mobile cooker is used in a small tent with no ventilation (= fresh air coming in and smoke going out). Many people have died from carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause feelings of paranoia and hallucinations, and has been determined to be a major cause of "haunted" houses.

Production[change | change source]

Despite that it is a poison, carbon monoxide is very useful in chemical industry so lots of ways of making it have been discovered.[1] Normally we burn coke at high temperature with not enough oxygen. The chemical equation for this is:

2C + O2 → 2CO

It can be also made by blowing hot steam through red-hot crushed coke

C + H2O → CO + H2

Carbon monoxide can be used as heating fuel because it burns easily into carbon dioxide. It can also be used as so-called "synthesis gas" for making man-made gasoline in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

During the World War II when petrol was rare and reserved for the military, many cars were converted to use wood gas. It is carbon monoxide made by burning wood chips in insufficient amount of air. The wood gas was made in a special oven called generator, which was carried on the car. The resulting carbon monoxide was then used as fuel for the car itself. Even today there are cars which use wood gas as fuel.

References[change | change source]

  1. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.

Other websites[change | change source]